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Current: Versailles Anniversary Project October 2019: Thirty Years War series Hello and welcome history friends patrons all to When Diplomacy Fails Podcast, or WDF as I like to call it! My name is Zack Twamley, history masters graduate, author and all-round history nerd! For over six years, I have been privileged to examine wars throughout history through a unique lens. I always try to ask what on the surface may seem like very reasonable questions - why, how and WHEN did diplomacy fail? This approach has enabled a loyal base of 'history friends' to grow up around WDF, and thanks to their much appreciated work getting the word out there, we have taken history podcasting to incredible new heights! You should know that my jam at WDF is not the mundane, the tedious or the repetitive - I care little for the logistics of why one general moves his forces to point A, or what impact weapon X had on the war. Instead, I delve into human agency, the story populated by sometimes ingenious, sometimes fatally flawed human beings, who believed or had been led to believe that the time was right for war. Under these circumstances, diplomacy certainly fails, but thanks to our window into the era, you get to find out all about it! From the machinations of Louis XIV, to the complex set of events which led to the outbreak of the First World War, to the most obscure of conflicts besides, WDF has been through it all, and there's so much more to come! So why not stop by, give us a listen, and do your bit to help make history THRIVE! If you want to lend a hand to what I do here then please subscribe/rate/review the podcast here, like the Facebook page, follow on Twitter @wdfpodcast visit the website www.wdfpodcast.com become a Patron at www.patreon.com/WhenDiplomacyFails and contact Zack directly at his email address: wdfpodcast@hotmail.com Thanksss!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 23, 2019, 9 p.m.

Versailles #80: OTD 23rd June 1919 - Ayes to the Right (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! On This Day a century ago, the Germans finally accepted the unacceptable. They finally arrived at the point where they determined that enough was enough. Or, to be more accurate, they exhausted their appeals, and realised that the choice between war or shame was not much of a choice at all. They would pick shame, with several caveats. They had tried everything else - their final appeal was one requesting another 48 hours delay, which the allies refused, likely because of the events at Scapa Flow 48 hours before. Now there was truly no going back. They would have to accept the peace treaty, warts and all, the same peace which Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau had so spurned on 7th May. This treaty was virtually unchanged, as was the allied determination to press home their considerable advantages if it proved necessary. No, the new Chancellor and his President said, they could not risk the fate of Germans by a refusal. So it was that the German assembly voted explicitly to outlaw the use of this moment for political gains in the future - a seriously significant moment which was later subsumed under Nazi propaganda. It could not be denied that the German statesmen, from virtually all parties, had assented. The Ayes to the right were legion, and nobody could be quite sure what would happen next. First things first though, they needed to find some Germans wiling to journey to Paris and sign - this proved to be the next trying phase of the peace conference, but back in Paris, the celebrations were beginning early. After so many months of work, it was finally time to revel in the fact that it was over, and soon they would be going home... ***** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes! For information regarding your data privacy, visit acast.com/privacy

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 22, 2019, 10:33 p.m.

Versailles #79: Confusion & Delusion (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! Our latest episode contains the following theme, expressed by the Germans, to the effect that Germany would not accept the so-called 'war guilt clause'. The 22nd of June was a day of intense anxiety for the Germans and big three alike, because of this theme of defiance, and also, in a sense, delusion. The news of Scapa Flow hardly helped, as any sense of sympathy had been torpedoed, pun intended, and the Germans were faced with another brick wall. One particularly defiant message was sent in the late afternoon of 22nd June by Gustav Bauer, the German Chancellor, who clung to the notion that the most offensive articles could be deleted from the final version of the peace treaty, and it read: Germany further lays the greatest emphasis on the declaration that she cannot accept article 231 of the Treaty of Peace which requires Germany to admit herself to be the sole and only author of the war, and does not cover this article by her signature. It consequently follows without further argument that Germany must also decline to recognise that the burdens should be placed upon her on the score of the responsibility for the war which has unjustly been laid at her door. And that wasn't all - as it became evident that Germany would soon either tumble into an unwinnable war, or face the ultimate shame, statesmen across Europe were already planning for what would happen next. Yet, it was outside of Europe, in the court of the newest world power, that these decisions would prove most biting of all. What would the American President do with that undeniable tide of isolationism threatening to subsume American politics? And what would Europe do if, contrary to his public pronouncements, he was in fact submerged? ****** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes! For information regarding your data privacy, visit acast.com/privacy

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 21, 2019, 6 p.m.

Versailles #78: OTD 21st June 1919 - Ships of State (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! Within this episode we tell the incredible story of Scapa Flow, that infamous event in the twilight of the peace conference, where the German admiral von Reuter determined that he had no choice other than to scuttle his ships. As we will learn here though, the decision which the German admiral took was not a straightforward case of a German doing bold things, and debate rages on to this day over whether or not the act was a result of misunderstanding, or deliberate sabotage. We also provide some background to the situation at Scapa Flow. How long had von Reuter's 74 ships been at this harbour, and why were they interned, rather than simply handed over as a surrender? What did the allies plan to do with his ships, and how did they plan to overcome thier disagreements? Could anyone really afford to add these 74 ships to their naval arsenal, or should they be used instead as a beacon of hope, by handing them to the League of Nations? Maybe they should just be destroyed in a grand ceremony, the symbol of the Anglo-German naval race sinking beneath the waves. As we will learn, the scuttling didn't merely embarrass the British, it also saved any potential antagonism between the British and Americans. Perhaps, in some respects, the act was even a blessing in disguise? ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes! For information regarding your data privacy, visit acast.com/privacy

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 21, 2019, 9:55 a.m.

Versailles #77: War or Shame (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! While the allied rejection of the Counterproposals seemed to signify that there was no going back for Germany, certain individuals within the German delegation in Paris, and the German government back in Weimar, were keen to try a few final desperate things. At the top of the list of these desperate men was Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, the German Foreign Minister and recipient of the allied terms on 7th May. BR was, incredibly enough, not just planning to reject these terms, he was also preparing for war with the allies. What was more, this German and many of his peers in the German delegation had become convinced that this was the only way to avoid the humiliation of defeat, whatever the cost may be. So we examine here the forgotten story of Germany's planned resistance to the peace treaty, which the allies had made plain, could not be negotiated. To BR though, the apocalyptic vision of what would follow German rejection of the terms, complete with an allied invasion of German lands, soldiers in Berlin and maybe even the dissolution of the German Empire into individual German states, all this was worth it if it provided Germans with an opportunity amidst the carnage. As we will learn in this episode, BR was banking on noting less than an allied collapse in the midst of this invasion, which would enable Germans to bring the divided allies back to the negotiating table, and get a better peace. As we will also learn though, BR had it all wrong. So very wrong in fact, and the allies knew that at this point, it would have been the ultimate crime to hold back after coming this far... ********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes! For information regarding your data privacy, visit acast.com/privacy

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 18, 2019, 10:58 p.m.

Delegation Game #18: Operation Redeemer (media.mp3)

Operation Redeemer - that plan to relieve the besieged forces commanded by General David McCay in Kiev, spearheaded by a force commanded by Paul von Lettow Vorbeck, composed of Freikorps soldiers and other German volunteers. It was a story almost too incredible to be true - and yet, onwards the redeemed marched. Back in London, the peacemakers chaired the Arbitration Committee, and imagined life after the conference. It seemed that the pieces were coming together, but would everyone be standing by the end?

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 16, 2019, 12:30 p.m.

Versailles #76: OTD 16th June 1919 - A Show of Unity (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! On This Day in history a century ago, a significant milestone in the history of the Paris Peace Conference was reached, and like so many others we have come across, its significance is largely lost in the narrative. This allied response, examined in this episode, represented a solid defence of their peace treaty, and a rebuke of Germany’s pretences to be standing for the Fourteen Points. The allied response was devastating and formidable, in that it was effectively the answer to Germany's claims to any moral high ground. Germany could claim no such high ground, said the allies, for their past behaviour disqualified them from any such claims. The historian George Creel wrote on the allied response: "It is to be wished that the two documents – the German of May 29th and the Allied reply of June 16th – could be printed in every language and placed in every school and library, for they furnish in themselves a complete and dramatic exposition of the whole Peace Treaty, permitting the formation of an intelligent and independent opinion with respect to the confused question of justice or injustice." The significance of the communications could never be in doubt. What was in doubt was what might happen next. The allied language was certainly arranged to leave no doubt: "It is only justice that restitution should be made and that these wronged peoples should be safeguarded for a time from the competition of a nation whose industries are intact and have even been fortified by machinery stolen from occupied territories. If these things are hardships for Germany, they are hardships which Germany has brought upon herself. Somebody must suffer for the consequences of the war. Is it to be Germany, or only the peoples she has wronged?" There could be no doubt according to the big three - the Germans had to admit their wrongdoing, and what was more, this was the end of the debate. "In conclusion", their reply said, "the Allied and Associated Powers must make it clear that this letter and the memorandum attached constitute their last word." Failing the successful adherence by the Germans to these terms, "The said Armistice will then terminate, and the Allied and Associated Powers will take such steps as they think needful to enforce their Terms." It was, in short, do or die for the German government, and On This Day the scales finally fell from the German eyes...or did they? Listen to this fascinating examination of this forgotten moment to find out... ******** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 12, 2019, 5:59 p.m.

Versailles #75: Destructive Divisions (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! Between 5 to 10 June 1919, one could be forgiven for imagining that the allies would be far too buys discussing the German counterproposals and their intended reply to do anything else. In fact, what we see on the morning of 5th June is a significant exchange between Paderewski and the big three, as Poland was placed on trial for its recent actions. It was almost as though the big three had nothing else to do, as their attentions were well and truly occupied with this largely unrelated issue. Or...was it so unrelated? After all, unless the border with Germany and Poland was finalised, and the question of Upper Silesia affirmed, there could be no clarity on the German Treaty as a whole. Furthermore, it was entirely possible that if the Poles were unclear about where they would have to stop in thier claims to nationhood, a conflict could erupt as soon as the peace was signed. As it happened, this conflict did erupt, but between Poles and Soviets rather than Poles and Germans. Solving the borders between the two states was just another divisive mission which the big three would have to accomplish, and it was plain that each individual had a different stake in the debate. Was it possible that while en route to the resolution of the peace treaty, the big three could get so tied up in other questions equally in need of resolution that they might never make it to the end? Possibly; at the very least, these destructive divisions which always remained under the surface, and which moved the French, Americans and British to grow their own positions on the different aspects of the peace refused to go away. Until compromise could be reached, a final settlement would thus be out of reach altogether. ******** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 10, 2019, 1:46 p.m.

Delegation Game #17: Peace At Last? (media.mp3)

An eventful fortnight indeed, as the delegates crowd around the table to read the latest on the German peace treaty, the dominions offer their views, the Germans seem to be scheming, and the Russians remain mysterious. Still, despite the setbacks and mistrust, the lies and disappointments, one could be forgiven for wondering - is this peace at last?

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 6, 2019, 3:45 p.m.

D-Day - Sand and Steel w/ Peter Caddick-Adams (media.mp3)

75 Years ago, our ancestors made a brave step towards the liberation of France from the most terrible of tyranny. Now, with the considerable help of Dr Peter Caddick-Adams, historian, journalist, author, reservist and more, I delve into this event, using the recently released book Sand and Steel - a New History of D-Day  by the author as my guide. We get into so much detail here, and a huge thanksss must go out to Peter for being so swell and coming onto the show - I had a ball talking with him! To get Peter's book click on the link here OR enter our competition by sharing the relevant status on Twitter or Facebook...or both! The winner will get a signed copy of Peter's whopper book sent directly to their door, so don't delay! Competition ends Monday 10th June at 12 noon GMT. Thanksss!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on June 5, 2019, 9:07 p.m.

Versailles #74: Commission Impossible (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! The incredible story of the Paris Peace Conference addresses that all important question of: should they not really have been finished this madness by now?! The Counterproposals had by now been absorbed, and from the beginning it was clear that they were bound to cause divisions. Not mere technicians or delegates, but full blown PRIME MINISTERS were determined to lead these divisions. Lloyd George, after supporting just as many difficult clauses as his peers, was now convinced, after having met with his peers in the British Empire delegation, that the Treaty as it stood was unacceptable. If the Treaty was not changed, the PM claimed, then he would have to be allowed return to Parliament back in London, in a tactic not dissimilar to Vittorio Orlando, to justify it. In the PM's sights were arguably the most sensitive clauses which had been agreed, and he potentially had enemies in each. The Rhineland occupation, Clemenceau's proudest achievement perhaps, was under threat from the PM's revisionist gaze. Britons, LG claimed, would never accept the occupation. Few of his delegates would even consider it, and they would not approve of British soldiers marching into Germany to enforce the peace based on this clause. Clemenceau was apoplectic, and we know this from the conversations he shortly shared with his counterparts, but the minutes of the Council of Four remained sickly polite and familiar, as though the PM wasn't angling to tear up months of work which he had played no small role in creating. But that wasn't all - Upper Silesia would need a plebiscite, Germany must be invited into the League sooner, or perhaps instantly, and reparations must be fixed to a certain figure. These concessions, claimed Lloyd George, were the only way to fuse peace to the international order, and guarantee peace between France and Germany. That said, Lloyd George scoffed at the idea that war would return to Europe, or that Germany would pose a threat to France, for at least another 30 or 50 years. Certainly, the PM claimed, Germany and France would not be at each other's throats again in a mere 15 years, so what was Clemenceau so worried about? In fact the PM was correct, the Nazis annexed the Rhineland in 16, not 15 years, but he was bound to be wrong about virtually everything else. Whether he owned these errors or not, they threatened to undo everything which the big three had worked towards since they had first landed in Paris... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 31, 2019, 6 a.m.

Versailles #73: The German Counterproposals (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! After weeks of waiting, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau finally broke radio silence on 29th May 1919, when he communicated the full extent of Germany's answer to the draft peace treaty from 7th May. And oh boy, was this communique full in its extent. Consisting of more than 100 pages, what came to be known as the German 'counterproposals' was half a document half as large as the peace treaty itself, and it packed quite a punch. Initially, it was necessary to translate the document to discover its ramifications, so it wasn't until 31st May that true consideration of it was possible for the non-German speakers. This delayed matters, and facilitated speculation among the big three over what the Germans could be after. Before long, the document would be unwrapped - the Germans, in a very roundabout way, were saying Nein. In this episode, we examine a forgotten answer to that forgotten question - that being, what did the Germans have to say about the allied draft peace treaty? So often we are presented with the simple narrative of A-B, where the treaty is presented on 7th May, and approved on 28th June. Here, we are reminded that matters were rarely if ever so simple. The Germans had been waiting on the sidelines, following the peace conference as best as they could. Now utterly depressed and disillusioned by what they had been given, the Germans started writing immediately after 7th May, and came to discover that they had an awful lot to get off their chests. The allies, technically, did not have to listen to their proposals, yet in the atmosphere of emotional post-war morality politics, the big three discovered that not only would they have to listen to these proposals, they would also have to absorb them, consider them, and mount a rely. This was a process which, it was feared, the vaunted unity of the big three up to this point might not survive... ********* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 29, 2019, 9:30 p.m.

Versailles #72: Grim Expectations (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! The last few days of May 1919 were a weird time in the allied camp. Despite the fact that it was absolutely expected that Germany was about to send 'elaborate' counterproposals, which meant that Germany, therefore, would not be signalling its complete acceptance of the Peace Treaty, the big three refrained from authorising Marshal Foch to begin his preparations for war. These preparations might have turned up the heat on Germany, and demonstrated to Chancellor Scheidemann's government that the allies were serious indeed about their demand for unconditional acceptance being respected. This was a strange contradiction in the allied policy - did they not want the Germans to know they meant business? It was a strange contradiction, but it was far from the only one. Despite the need to prepare for the arrival of these anticipated counterproposals, and the necessity in maintaining allied unity at all times, the big three decided that the time was now right to gang up on Italy like never before. In a series of scathing verbal attacks on the Italian premier who was present, Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George in their turn all claimed that Orlando had had no policy, that he had made no clear requests, that much had changed since 1915, that he was jeopardising the Entente, and a whole range of other ideas. We will measure the fairness of these jibes in the episode, but they typically followed by the claim that they meant Italy to feel no disrespect, and that they looked forward to solving these issues in the future. Insincere though the last minute trudgings through the Italian issues, the Austrian peace and the Russian situation might appear to us here, the big three seemed to have little else to do, while they waited with baited breath to see what the Germans would say about their peace treaty. Remember - these were supposed to be the victorious allies. Notwithstanding Germany's right to make suggestions, according to the terms of the peace, the spectre of Germany making the allies wait in line for their verdict was a bizarre one. Perhaps, the big three genuinely believed that the best course was to give diplomacy another chance, and that was why they made Foch delay his plans, which might have made a difference to the German reply. Either way, the moments which filled the diaries of the big three in the final days of May were about to build towards something incredible, and the grim waiting process seemed like the very worst part of this process. ******** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 26, 2019, 8:36 p.m.

Versailles #71: Relegating Russia (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! There was nothing simple about the allied policy towards Russia. The adventures of William C. Bullitt and a failed conference at Prinkipo were all the allies had to show for their attempts to fix Russia, which meant ridding the world of the Bolsheviks. Of course, the allies also had considerable forces of their own in the different Russian fronts, in the Northern theatre based at Archangel, in the South near the Crimea and in Siberia at Omsk. This latter theatre contained the base of one Admiral Alexander Kolchak, and on 26th May 1919, the finishing touches had finally been put on a document of incredible significance. The allies, it seemed, were willing to recognise Kolchak's government as THE government of Russia! This was nothing less than a declaration of war on the Bolsheviks, but if you asked Lenin, he would have said without much of an effort, that the allies were at war with the Bolsheviks anyway. The impetus behind making their pro-Kolchak policy official was the successive military triumphs of his regime. The problem was, in spite of what the big three might have thought, these triumphs were very impressive, but they had been impressive a month ago. In the space of that month, while the German treaty was handed over, the Italians were peeved and the Greeks landed, a great deal had changed. This period of change was not felt in Paris though, because the big three were steadily informed of the situation. Who supplied their information? The very faction they wished to see come out on top, Admiral Kolchak. This produced a tragic situation whereby allied help, such as it was, came far too late to make any difference. The allied recognition of Kolchak, while it was effective in bolstering the morale of him and his men, did not have much of a material impact. The allies, in other words, had moved too slowly, and not done enough, to make any difference. This was, in many respects, the story of the big three's life in the Peace Conference. In addition to their recognition of Kolchak though, the allies forwarded EIGHT demands (not seven as I say here, before going on to list eight...oops!) which Kolchak would have to adhere to if his regime was to enjoy allied support. Kolchak agreed with the terms - what did he have to lose after all, when his forces were on the backfoot, and allied help was so desperately needed? In the end, the allies treated the Russian front the same as they treated the Turkish, Eastern European, African, Middle Eastern and indeed the German front - they acted too slowly, with inadequate information, and made a giant mess in the process. We live with the consequences of their mess today, so why not have a listen and see just how much stuff you can blame the big three for today?! ********* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 25, 2019, 9:35 p.m.

Versailles 70: What Will Germany Say? (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! By the last week of May 1919, the focus in the allied camp had switched from Italy to Germany...for the most part. It was known that the Germans would have to send a reply to the allied peace treaty soon - they had just 15 days from the moment it was handed to them to give an answer. Thus, while in the interim the big three mostly did their own thing, by the tailend of that deadline, they were beginning to seriously worry about what the Germans would actually say. What they could agree on, at least, was that this was THE peace treaty, and like it or not, Germany would have to sign. At least, that was how it seemed. It is up to me to explain then, if this resolute insistence on accepting the terms of the treaty was so dominant, why were the Germans allowed to procrastinate, and why were they even allowed to communicate counterproposals to the allies, making their own suggestions, and continuing their loud protest at the terms already agreed to. It was quite a sight – after four months of negotiation, the treaty reached by the allies was meant to be final. Yet, within two weeks of handing that treaty to the Germans, it was evident that they were not willing to accept it in its full form. What was more, as we will learn, some of the allies, and even some of the big three, had begun to get cold feet as to the nature of some of the terms. ************ The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 25, 2019, 2:19 p.m.

Delegation Game #16: Truth & Consequences (media.mp3)

In episode 16 of the game, we visit four distinct scenes, where a great deal of drama goes down. Lloyd George has some words for the British Empire Delegation; four allied figures meet to try and address their differences; the Austro-German party urge action in the creation of some peace treaty which will actually end the war, and in the American delegation, the fallout from Woodrow Wilson's stroke continues to paralyse policy, as Poles and Frenchmen look on. It's an episode packed with developments, subtle hints and the consequences of previous decisions, so I hope you enjoy it! See you next time on Saturday 8th June! **************** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 24, 2019, 11:48 p.m.

Versailles #69: Big Three And One (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! The aftermath of the Greek landing was one thing, but there was no ignoring the reception which the peace treaty received in Germany either. The Big Three, sometimes joined by Italy, worked through their to-do list between 16-19 May - by the way yes, apologies for this episode being rather late... But it's no later than the British, American and French reaction to the news of German problems with their treaty. You'll be unsurprised to learn, the Germans had problems with this draft that reached to the very core of its 440 articles, and they were loud in their expressions of disgust. They were not the only ones. Despite the grave criticisms which were leveled against the Treaty, Wilson stood firmly against them. He was, he believed, fighting the good fight, even if the end result was not perfect. The League would make things right in the world, and that was what mattered now, not the hurt feelings of the Irish, the Chinese, or especially the Italians. This latter party were the most prolific in their disappointments by far - in fact, at one point on a sunny day in mid-May, the Italians faced the full wrath of its three weary allies, who just wanted the Italians to roll over. As Vittorio Orlando knew full well though, this was not an option. He would have to hold on, to Fiume, or the Treaty of London, or whatever he could, with results that tore at the very fabric of the allied accord, but which also make for positively fascinating listening. So why not pull a chair up, make sure Italy isn't sitting on it first, and see how it was that the big four became the big three and one! ********* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 23, 2019, 8:20 a.m.

Versailles #68: American Matters (media.mp3)

Join me and other history friends on Flick - a great app for history friends and important conversations! My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! It's high time we considered the American angle once again. After several weeks of work, one would imagine that the American delegation and the American President would have their kinks all worked out by this stage, right? Unfortunately not. In fact, Woodrow Wilson faced several serious conflicts of interest and differences of opinion not only within the American delegation and the body politic back home, but also, so it seemed sometimes, from his old self. Wilson had undoubtedly been forced to compromise on several of his key ideals, and while he imagined that the League of Nations would justify these sacrifices for the sake of long term gains, there were those in his confidence that couldn't imagine allowing the President to get away with it. Whether it was his inconsistency in treating the Italians over Fiume and the Japanese over Shantung, his inability to clarify what self-determination actually meant, or his consistent faux pas with each of the allied leaders, Wilson seemed a far cry from his triumphant, visionary self by mid-May 1919. In this episode, we'll get to grips with how his contemporaries and historians since weighed in on the question of Wilson's principles, from those he was willing to cling to relentlessly, and those which he seemed to throw aside as the German peace treaty loomed into view. If you want to be clued in on the latest developments in the American side, then this installment of our project is for you! **************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 19, 2019, 4:30 p.m.

Delegation Game #15: The Clemenceau Directive (media.mp3)

After so many weeks of preparation, it is finally time to journey to Warsaw where the Council for Russian Freedoms presents its mission. Accompanied by volunteer forces from all over the world, the message is clear - the extinction of Bolshevism and the rescuing of Russia. However, beneath of the surface of the good intentions and proud speeches, lurks dark rumours, doubts and further conspiracy... ***** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 18, 2019, 5:30 a.m.

WDF 7th Birthday Bash: Huge News and Q&A (media.mp3)

Are you ready for this? After a long time teasing you all, it's time I dropped some incredibly exciting news on the world. This news has the potential to change history podcasting FOREVER...sort of, but first and foremost, it means big changes for you and I. I hope you'll have a listen to the first half of this show to hear my news and get to grips with what I'm all about. Pat yourself on the back and say a huge thankssss with me, for seven wonderful years of history podcasting! Who would have thought that after seven years of talking to myself, you would all still be listening! Happy birthday to us, and thankss for being the best history friends a guy could ask for [self hug] Here are the questions I cover in this episode: What’s a typical day of work for you with the show? How are you managing to do all this? What black magic are you using to make days last 48 hours etc.? How is teaching? Do you think you’ll revisit BGTW again? How do you get through sources so quickly? Do you see Sean anymore? What’s your favourite junk food? If you had one piece of advice for someone starting out in history podcasting, what would it be? What is your recording studio set up? Will you cover any examples of when diplomacy succeeds in the future? What’s a pet peeve you have with history podcasting? How do you construct your scripts for each episode? You came to the US in November 2018, what was one thing you liked and one thing you didn’t like about our country? Did you expect this series to be so massive? Most surprising fact about my research for it? What’s the weirdest error you’ve made with the project? What’s your favourite subtitle you’ve given to an episode of the series? Where do you begin with big projects like the VAP? Whose diary do you wish you had for the VAP? What are you reading right now aside from all the VAP/1956 stuff? Any books that you stopped reading out of frustration? Name and shame! What famous hair or beard style do you wish you could pull of today? Favourite female diplomatic leader? You get to ask one question to one historical figure, they must answer honestly, who will you ask and what question will you ask? What do you think of historians that allow their ideology or opinions to affect their work?

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 15, 2019, 5:30 a.m.

Versailles #67: OTD 15th May 1919 - Greek Landing (media.mp3)

My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Use the code WDF to get 5% off your ticket! OTD 100 years ago, the switch was finally pulled, and Greek soldiers were landed in Anatolia for the first time in centuries. The cause was the city of Smyrna, that centerpiece of Greek culture and history which, Greek premier Venizelos claimed, was eager to welcome its compatriots. Yet, the act of the landing is as fascinating as the story which led up to this event. It was a story of Hellenic romanticism, background intrigue, a selective application of self-determination, a lot of Greek pressure oh, and did I mention, a whole lot of Greek pressure. On the surface, this act seemed to be the peak of Venizelos' career. It was merely a stepping stone, potentially, for the realisation of a Greater Greek Empire which straddled the Hellespont. And yet, several problems lurked behind the curtain. Perhaps the most important elephant in the room were the Turks, who were not even considered a proper nationality by the allies. Certainly, in Venizelos' view, Turks were really just lapsed Greeks, or sometimes, they were irredeemable barbarians. Either way, Greek culture would nourish them back to civilisation, and it was only humane not to stand in their way. Yet, despite receiving the most punitive peace treaty of any vanquished power, the Turks would enjoy a resurgence, and against all odds, ignore the peace treaties handed down by the allies. They were by far the most thoroughly punished of the Central Powers, yet they were also the only member of that group to ignore the peace terms which the allies presented, and to live to tell the tale. On the other side of this crisis, loomed a reckoning between two peoples, Greek and Turkish, who had been at loggerheads for millenia. It was impossible to imagine Greeks and Turks living side by side in harmony, to the extent that, in acting to land at Smyrna, Venizelos set off a chain of events which would result in an incredibly tragic scene - the ending of centuries of Greek culture in Smyrna, in exchange for a lasting peace. It was a journey - from triumph to despair - which took fewer than five years. The aftershocks of this act were still being felt nearly four years after the First World War had officially 'ended', and believe it or not, Venizelos had a key role to play in both of these seismic chapters of Greco-Turkish history. All of it, began with a landing... *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 12, 2019, 10:30 p.m.

Versailles #66: Greater Greek Dreams (media.mp3)

My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! The story of Greece comes under our microscope at long last. Here we are introduced to a fascinating vision, yet another example of what might have been. Greater Greece was a project which appealed to many people outside the realm of Greece itself, and in this episode we will get to grips with the origins of the idea in Greek, but mostly in British foreign policy. It was in Britain, as we'll see, that some of the most enthusiastic supporters of an enormous Greek empire existed. This 'redeemed' Greece would expand its power and influence across the Hellespont, into Constantinople, into Anatolia, all over the Aegean, and virtually everywhere else that a smattering of Greek culture and history could said to have resided. We also recap in this episode how Greece got to this point. Greece was, in spite of what Premier Venizelos might have claimed, a very divided country by 1919. The legacy of the war, where the country had flip flopped between allied and central power supporter, had left serious scars, which only Venizelos seemed capable of keeping under control. The danger, as ever, was that Greece might unravel if it were left wanting in its claims. Another more serious danger though, which was realised too late, was what might happen if the Greeks DID get what they wanted. What would it mean for Greek and Turkish relations into the future if Greece acquired portions of Anatolia? Without due consideration of this question, the allies blundered onward with terrible naivety, pushing Greeks and Turks into a collision course, the impact of which reverberates to this day... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 12, 2019, 9:20 p.m.

Delegation Game #14: His Rightful Place (media.mp3)

The President Marshall arrives in London to take his seat alongside the big three in the Council of Eight, as a very exhausted SIR Alistair Tancred accompanies him. Awaiting Foch in London are several developments; the Minor Council continues to quarrel, the League of Nations is under severe threat, and the concerned nations prepare themselves to contribute men to the cause of Russian freedom, after a rocky start... ********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 10, 2019, 6:08 p.m.

Versailles #65: Three's a Crowd (media.mp3)

My agora friends and others are going to be in New York for a special conference on 29th June - meet Mike Duncan, Kevin Stroud, David Crowther and more! Search Intelligent Speech Conference now! Somehow, we managed to cram an hour of content in an episode that examines the 8-10 May 1919! That's because in that episode, a great deal happened which requires our attention, so sit down and relax as we talk about...Italy again??!! Well yes, but other issues too. How would the Germans respond to the peace terms? What plans did the allies have in place in the event that the Germans refused to accept? The two week deadline was ticking downwards, but considering all we've seen so far, it should be no surprise that sceptics and realists alike imagined that this two week deadline was not the final word... ******* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 7, 2019, 3 a.m.

Versailles #64: OTD 7th May 1919 - Moment of Truth (media.mp3)

On this day 100 years ago, the Germans were finally presented with the treaty had been under construction for nearly five full months. What would they think of it? That remained to be seen, but in the process of handing this treaty to them, the German delegation, represented by Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, would be given a chance to speak while seated, before the entirety of the plenary conference on afternoon of 7th May 1919. It was a scene which the allies had never expected to behold, but as soon as the German foreign minister began talking, two things were clear.  First, despite the fact that they hadn't got the treaty in their hot little hands, the Germans had tapped into the rumours which were swirling around, and they hadn't liked at all what they had gathered. Second, and arguably more importantly though, the spectre of the German foreign minister defying the allies and their treaty went down like a lead balloon. Brockdorff-Rantzau's performance, while in content was not explosive, in style it was positively volcanic, and it shaped the attitudes of the big three towards the Germans more than ever before. If they had forgotten who the real enemy was, this scene served better than anything as a grim reminder of the task ahead. *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 5, 2019, 8 a.m.

Versailles #63: The Long Italian Shadow (media.mp3)

In our longest episode to date (and hopefully ever) we examine the incredible story of the first week of May 1919, by delving into primary sources never before used on a podcast, and rarely used in books! This delivers to us a narrative rich in detail and plainly, in length, but it is a necessary chapter to absorb in our story simply because it is so fascinating. The Italians, as is commonly known, walked out of the Peace Conference in the last week of April. Therefore, a reasonable history enthusiast might conclude that the big three would ignore them, and that they would spend more time talking about Germany instead, especially since the German delegation was present in Paris, and eagerly awaiting the moment when they would be handed that peace treaty which the allies had been working on for so many months by this point. And yet, an incredible truth of the 1-6 May 1919 is that, in spite of all of these facts which would recommend a speedy resolution of the German peace, and the conclusion of the first phase of peacemaking, the big three were utterly besotted with an apparently irrelevant issue - the Italians. That's right - contrary to what conventional pictures of the conference process tells us, the Italians were not forgotten once they left Paris. Instead, the Italians had never been so popular, as the allies worked to predict a morass of issues that concerned Rome. Would the Italians be included in the final peace? Would the Italians join the League of Nations? Would the Italians launch a pre-emptive strike at Fiume, or even Asia Minor? What should the allies do to stop them?  Amidst these concerns, of course, the conference did not sit still, and the German treaty was examined in a plenary conference on the afternoon of 6th May, in a process which House called 'stupid beyond endurance.' Yet, it deserves reiterating that even by that point, the allies had yet to examine or consider the treaty in its full scope or impact. It is often noted that the big three didn't spend enough attention properly considering the full extent of their decisions. What is talked about far less, and what my research brings forward here, is the surprising answer behind these delays and misconceptions. The allies didn't pay scant regard to the eventual Treaty of Versailles because they were inherently lazy or ignorant, but because they were consumed and distracted by the long Italian shadow, which was cast over all their proceedings. Try as they might, they could not escape from the power which had abandoned them a week before. Tune in here for a story which I have never seen told; as we delve into the nitty gritty of the conference, to unveil a story that is as fascinating as it is disturbing. It's something which has to be HEARD to be believed, so if you'll join me for this two hour bonanza, I believe you'll come away with a completely different perspective on what it meant to be a peacemaker, and sit among the big three... ****** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on May 3, 2019, 6:44 a.m.

Versailles #62: A Wild Soviet Bavaria Appears (media.mp3)

The German delegation had arrived in Paris, but despite the confident exterior, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau would have known full well that all was not well back home. Germany was tottering on the edge of the abyss, and nowhere was this danger more acute than in the traditionally safe, conservative heartland of the Empire - Bavaria. What had led this second state of Germany to veer so far to the left, and so far from its old roots? Was there any hope for Bavaria, or was it destined to be another Budapest? Germans were determined that the answer should be nein, but the aftershocks of this trauma were not something that could be so easily contained... ******* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 30, 2019, 10:29 p.m.

Versailles #61: The Last Day of April (media.mp3)

The 30th April was a strange day. It was barely a microcosm in the grand scheme of the Paris Peace Conference, and it was wedged awkwardly between the Italian walkout and the German arrival, not to mention the madcap adventures of the drafting committee, as hundreds of overworked printers and technicians worked to get the Treaty finished within 48 hours - the intended deadline at this stage. It is little wonder that the big three were busy then - they held no fewer than FIVE meetings on the same day. What did they have to show for it by the end? Some notes taken on the Italian feelings, the confirmation of Japanese intransigence over China, and French stubbornness over Alsace-Lorraine...and that was it! If the allies continued to work without working like this for the next few days, then it didn't look good for either the drafting committee, or the Peace Conference itself. As a new month dawned, the big three seemed more sluggish than ever... *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 29, 2019, 10:08 p.m.

Versailles #60: The Germans Arrive (media.mp3)

At long last, the German delegation has arrived in Paris, and resides in the exact same hotel where in 1871, the French government was forced to kowtow to Bismarck. What a coincidence! Leading the delegation was Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, a Wilhelmian German official of the old order, so it seemed. Brockdorff-Rantzau was the German Foreign Minister, and was utterly determined to get what he believed was Germany's just deserts - a peace treaty based on the Fourteen Points. Anything less than that, and he was bound to be unhappy. Yet, even as the German delegation arrived, a key problem was brought out into the open - the peace treaty STILL wasn't ready! This was far from the only problem which lay in store... *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 28, 2019, 8:37 p.m.

Versailles #59: OTD 28th April 1919 - A League Come True (media.mp3)

OTD 100 years ago, perhaps the most infamous international organisation in history was officially blessed by the plenary conference of the Paris Peace Conference. This made it essentially impossible to ignore that institution, or to fail to bake it into the final Treaty of Versailles. And so it was done. Yet, at the time, on that eventful day, and in that stuffy room where the minor and major nations debated the pros and cons of the vision, there could be no way of predicting what this League of Nations would mean. It seemed, at its core, to represent hope. In this episode, I examine that moment when it was established. To men like Wilson, who had envisioned some version of this League since he had first left the United States in late 1918, it must have seemed like a dream come true, but even at this early stage, not everyone was convinced... ******* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 28, 2019, 8:29 p.m.

Delegation Game #13: Foch's Five Pillars (media.mp3)

As the Conference at London works towards several compromises, we tune in to some new arrivals, some storm conference scenes, and a weighted meeting between the President Marshal, Ferdinand Foch, and the delegation of British, Swiss and Spanish delegates sent to meet him. They would arrive in Foch's office uncertain of precisely what to expect, but they would leave with yet another proposal... ********* The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 27, 2019, 5:59 p.m.

Versailles #58: Reparations and War Guilt (media.mp3)

It's time we cleared the air about reparations and war guilt, arguably the two most controversial elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Here, making use of studies long since ignored or forgotten, we unwrap the reality of the Germans were actually faced with, what the infamous articles actually said, and why the Germans determined, rather than face their mistakes, to make up a whole load of stuff about how unfair their lot was! It's a stunning tale of propaganda and deliberate duping, and may be one of the most revealing episodes we release, so have a listen! ******** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 26, 2019, 9:34 p.m.

Versailles #57: Danzig and the Rhine (media.mp3)

Here we take stock of the situation by the last week of April 1919 by focusing our microscope on two apparently unrelated, but hugely important issues – specifically the future of the Rhine, and the status of the city of Danzig. These two issues of the Rhineland and Danzig were intrinsically linked with the outbreak of the Second World War, and it is thus important in our narrative to establish where they came from. As we will learn here, not only did these two issues provide Hitler with different opportunities, they also represented, to Woodrow Wilson, an opportunity to send a unique message to the Italians... ********* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 24, 2019, 4:05 p.m.

Versailles #56: OTD 24th April 1919 - The Italians Walk Out! (media.mp3)

On 24th April 1919, Italy left the Paris Peace Conference. This stunning development was a long time coming, and was a natural result of the behaviour of the big three. Notwithstanding the justness of Italy's demands, these demands had brought her into the war, and now that it was plain the allies would not listen, Vittorio Orlando felt he had little choice other than to call the allied bluff. It was a decision that had been predicted for some time, and though they had tried to avoid this rift widening between them, no member of the big three cried for Italy. Unfortunately though, while they did not cry for Italy, the allies found they could not escape her long shadow. Orlando's victory, if it could be called that, was that Italy's smell lingered long after she had gone. The walkout was a significant development either way though, and paved the way for later disasters and misunderstandings which all served to hamper the steady flow of the conference. It's a long and winding tale, but it's one I had a great time investigating, so take a look here! ******* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 23, 2019, 3:47 p.m.

Versailles #55: Italian Stallions (media.mp3)

We finally turn our attention to Italy in this episode history friends, where the relationship of Vittorio Orlando with his peers in the big five comes under our microscope. What were Italy's demands? Why was Italy upset with how its interests had been received? Were these interests fair, or unjust altogether? How do we balance our innate repugnance at Italy's expansionist demands with the fair point that without those promises made to her, 500,000 of her men would still be alive, and 900,000 unwounded? It was quite a conundrum, and as the Italian government was beginning to fear, the allies were content to abandon this conundrum in favour of easier relations with the Americans. This was what the Italians feared, but they were not about to give up without a fight... ******* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 22, 2019, 2:22 p.m.

What Happened in the Suez Crisis? (media.mp3)

Hello dear listeners, this is a jack of all trades episode, which serves several purposes: 1. It explains what the Suez Crisis was, and why you should be interested in it. 2. It examined each one of the episodes, providing audio previews for most of them 3. It announces our Q&A episode due on 18th May - our 7th birthday, and I need your questions! 4. It serves as a call to arms, for history friends everywhere, to support this show in whatever way you can, in the run up to that birthday. The best way to support this show monetarily is through Patreon, and while it has been said before, in this episode it is said again, just how important this financial support is, and how much of a difference you can make. In return you'll get far more than $5 gets you these days, as well as some awesome audio goodies and my eternal gratitude. Let's smash 300 patrons and make the long term of success of this show guaranteed, from just $1 a month! If you want to skip the Call to Arms in the beginning of the show, go to the timestamp of roughly 18:30, and start listening to the breakdown of the Suez Crisis series! Start supporting the show by clicking here!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 20, 2019, 10:53 p.m.

Delegation Game #12: The Tiger Still Roars! (media.mp3)

Episode 12 of the game sees our focus hone in on one eventful day, 19th April 1919, where three separate meetings were held, and where dreams were debated and dashed. The Japanese put forward their long anticipated racial equality proposal - which you will have to vote for - and the dominions made their cases before a packed plenary council meeting. With Poincare present, as the Premier of France or shill of Foch depending on your perspective, the stage was set for some memorable exchanges and weighted debates. Then, at the last moment, a bombshell was dropped which promised to dramatically alter the future of Russia, Europe and the world! From the grave, the Tiger's roar could still be heard... ******* The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 16, 2019, 11:59 p.m.

Tim Bouverie: Appeasing Hitler (media.mp3)

You can order Tim's book here!  Something very special for you indeed history friends! A mere days away from launch, the lovely Tim Bouverie joins us for a fascinating chat about his monumental book, Appeasing Hitler: Chamberlain, Churchill and the Road to War, available in all good book stores! To say this book is monumental is to do it an injustice - in fact, I would go as far as saying, if you read any book on the build up to the Second World War in your life, you must read this. Just like I have attempted to reimagine the outbreak of the Great War from Britain's perspective, so too does Tim here work hard to bring us a refreshed look at that infamous foreign policy device. But, it'd be wrong to pigeonhole his book, or this episode, as an examination of appeasement in the late 1930s.  We certainly do that, but we delve deep into other matters as well - believe it or not, even the Treaty of Versailles and the Suez Crisis come up in our discussion, and how could they not? If you had the impression that appeasement was an isolated thing in British foreign policy, then you'd be wrong! Appeasement lived and died in the context of the 20th century, and lessons which were learned and which could never be forgotten shaped this century beyond measure. Appeasement was one of these lessons, and it's high time we did it justice. If you're ready to join Tim and for I for this incredible ride, then please do stop by! Remember you can track down Tim's great book here, or by going to any bookshop worth its salt. Thanksss!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 14, 2019, 4:38 p.m.

Delegation Game #11: Victory in Defeat (media.mp3)

The situation in our alternative universe continues to heat up, but some might say, for the better. The President Marshall of France, Ferdinand Foch, having survived the recent vote, now has his regime confirmed, but not all delegates have to like it. Foch's regime was buoyed by several successes over the last week, including one development in particular which will leave some delegates happy, and some furious - that, I'm afraid, is the nature of the Game! Remember, get scheming if you want to resolve this situation; change your character if you feel like your situation is hopeless, or change your perceptions altogether and work for a better peace for this world (yeah, right!). Either way, remember that if you want to play the delegation game and shape this world, you need only sign up for $6 a month! We cannot guarantee you a warm reception, but since the delegates involved only have three months left to make this final treaty, we can guarantee that you will be very busy indeed! *********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 11, 2019, 4 a.m.

Versailles #54: OTD 11th April 1919 - Racial Equality Denied (media.mp3)

The Japanese were utterly determined to pass the racial equality proposal, which actually consisted of a few sentences that would be inserted into the preamble of the League of Nations. This had been their for weeks, and it was publicly known, and feared, by much of the allies, with the exception perhaps of France. Neither the Americans nor the British could afford to accept this proposal, which was akin to political dynamite in 1919. However, the stories behind precisely why neither side could accept the Japanese approach were very different indeed. Either way, Edward House was determined that his President should not have to take the fall... ******** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 8, 2019, 10:49 p.m.

Versailles #53: Asian Persuasions (media.mp3)

It's high time we turned our attention to a neglected theatre of this story. No, not Africa...No, not the Middle East...Yes, that's right - Asian! Well, more specifically, just Japan! The story of the Japanese rise to power in the late 19th and early 20th century is one which has always fascinated us here at WDF, but in the context of the Paris Peace Conference, the story becomes more interesting still! The Japanese, clearly maligned due to their lack of European-ness, were nonetheless keen to play a prominent role in the proceedings, and yet the demands which they presented represented nothing short of dynamite for a conference already rocked by a succession of scandals... ********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 6, 2019, 5:57 p.m.

Delegation Game #10: Rebuilding Peace (media.mp3)

After a traumatic event which rocked France, the world and the Peace Conference to its core, how can the delegates involved possibly refocus their attentions to the task at hand - that of making peace? Fear not, the President-Marshall of France is on the case, and with his ambitious, but by no means impossible 16 Points, the hero of France's war effort attempts to become the hero of the peace conference, and to rebuild the peacemaking efforts of all those now knuckling down in the Anna-Bay Hotel, London... *********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 5, 2019, 5:04 p.m.

Versailles #52: OTD 5th April 1919 - Wilson Has Had Enough! (media.mp3)

In the first week of April, 1919, American President Woodrow Wilson had reached the end of his tether. He was eternally sick of Georges Clemenceau lording the agonies of France over his head - what he needed was compromise, not to be accused of being pro-German by the French premier in one particularly explosive meeting. The rift between American and French leaders had arrived at long last, but it was hardly likely to be a fight either man would benefit from. Amidst a terrible illness, Wilson declared his intention to return to the United States, and requested his boat prepare itself at Brest. This was too much for Clemenceau, who backtracked, and was even somewhat nice to Wilson in the French press. Yet this was a Pyrrhic victory if there ever was one - Wilson was worn out and ill from the bust up, and further afield, it was becoming clear that France and America were by no means the only issue of concern which the creaking Council of Four would have to deal... ************ The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on April 3, 2019, 6:42 p.m.

Delegation Game #9: Paris Is Revolting! (media.mp3)

Whoa, Nelly, have we got a story for you! In the aftermath of failed efforts to achieve satisfaction with reparations and with the intervention into Russia, one could be left feeling sorry themselves if you happened to be a delegate in this fictional version of Paris in late March 1919. However, the real movements were coming not from the halls of peace, but out on the streets and in the devious minds of disaffected leaders and citizens, determined to right by France...no matter who stood in the way! *********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 31, 2019, 1:03 p.m.

Versailles #51: The PM Surprises Us All! (media.mp3)

We return to the question of reparations with some startling revelations. If you thought the French were the greedy, grasping and bitter sponsors of a massive reparations bill, then prepare to question everything you know! It was not the French, but the politically trapped British PM David Lloyd George, who was in fact the loudest and most inconsistent advocate of a high bill. Why? That question has puzzled those historians who have attempted to answer it, but in this episode we're going to our best. Why was Lloyd George so eager for a large payment? Why was he giving his peers moderate advice one moment, only to come down harshly the next? Was he constrained by political promises, or did he genuinely intend to punish the Germans out of a deep seated belief in the rightness of his cause? Tune in here to find out the truth... ********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 27, 2019, 2:16 p.m.

Versailles #50: Deliberations on Reparations (media.mp3)

At long last, we turn our attention to the controversial issue of reparations. Perhaps no issue at the Paris Peace Conference, and no single tenet of the Treaty of Versailles has been the source of as much controversy as the question of how much Germany should pay to answer for its crimes of launching the Great War, yet in this first of an unofficial two-parter, we will learn that the conventional narrative of reparations is very far removed indeed from the reality. The eternal wisdom of John Maynard Keynes, we will discover, was far from so universal as historians have come to believe, and our impression of where the peacemakers went wrong and who was to blame over the reparations question is, I will explain, unfairly and unjustly skewed. It's time to set the record straight, or as straight as we can make it, so if you're eager for a revisionist take on 1919's most controversial question, look no further than our 50th episode! ********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 23, 2019, 10:15 p.m.

Delegation Game #8: Haunting Paris (media.mp3)

After a week of conspiracy and controversy, the fallout must be confronted. An exhausted and demoralised cast of delegates are challenged with creating some kind of policy approach to Russia, to listening to one another without going crazy, and with remaining wary at all times of former enemies, or should that be former friends? Regardless of what they planned to do in the future, there could be no denying that what they had done in the past had left Paris a haunted shell of its former self. The question remained to be answered - would it all be worth it in the end? ************ The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 21, 2019, 9:26 p.m.

Versailles #49: OTD 21st March 1919 - Hungary Sets the World on Fire (media.mp3)

A century ago today, Budapest was circling the drain of revolution, after several months of Bolshevik infiltration and grand promises, combined with mounting frustrations over President Mihaly Karolyi's consistent failings. What was to be done about the situation in Hungary? Where a population was so desperate to realise their dream of independence after four centuries under Habsburg rule? The allies had no idea, and paid Hungary barely any attention. While the peacemakers in Paris dallied, the Hungarians refused to sit still. If no one would listen then they would shock the world, and bring in only the second Bolshevik country in the world. By doing so, some Hungarians imagined that they would be able to take what was rightfully theirs. In fact, they doomed their country to suffer. Not only was Hungary now a defeated member of the Central Powers, it was now *shudder* a dangerous, Bolshevik, communist state, and had to be contained at all costs. It was a journey which began with Bela Kun, and ended with the terrible Treaty of Trianon a year later, but the story is set up here, so why not have a listen to how the forgotten vanquished power of Hungary fared in spring 1919? ********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 21, 2019, 9:39 a.m.

Versailles #48: Ten Becomes Four (media.mp3)

Check out the collaboration I did with Thom Daly, where we talked about Ireland and Brexit!  As the Paris Peace Conference welcomed back the American President and the Big Three began to entrench themselves once more into the familiar grind, it became clear that much had changed. Rather than move further away from each other, it was fortunate indeed that the allied leaders determined to double down on their efforts to foster cooperation by gathering together for a new kind of meeting – the first assembly of the Council of Four. For the next few months, the meeting synonymous with personable allied meetings, great progress and large egos would dominate the halls of Paris. Yet, in this episode, as we’ll see, the meeting had humble beginnings, and its results hardly suggested that the allies were onto a winning formula. Within this show, we will also draw on the observations provided by House, to build a picture of an allied front which contained no end of problems, but a reassuring determination nonetheless to push through these difficulties, and create a new world order on the other side which all could be proud of. It was the end of an old phase of the conference, and the beginning of something brand new…  ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 16, 2019, 8:05 p.m.

Delegation Game #7: Slaying the Tiger (media.mp3)

Episode 7 of the game analyses the events surrounding the shocking murder of Georges Clemenceau, and the return of the American President to the scene. How will the President cope with the new atmosphere of cooperation, facilitated by Roosevelt's help and support, when he couldn't stand the man? How will France cope with its shattering loss of the father of victory? What other schemes were ongoing? How did a Pole sneakily dodging between several delegations fit into proceedings? All this and much more going on in the latest episode - thankssss for listening, and thanksss especially for playing! ************* The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 14, 2019, 8:17 p.m.

Versailles #47: A Presidential Return (media.mp3)

After a month back home in the States, it was high time Woodrow Wilson returned to face the music in Paris. Exactly what tune this music would contain varied depending on whom you asked. Would Wilson find support in the leaders of the free world, or would he find only opportunists instead? What kind of impact upon the negotiations would be had by the Republican Party openly condemning his League Covenant, and insisting upon particular changes? Now that they knew he needed these four key changes to the League in order to proceed, could Georges Clemenceau, Lloyd George or Orlando be expected to be generous, or would they use their knowledge of Wilson's new weakness against him?  Regarding Wilson, he was looking a wee bit tired after that adventure back home - had it all been a waste of time? And what was up between the President and his friend the Colonel, who had truly held the fort for him while he had been gone? All these questions and so many more were in need of attention, as Wilson returned to Paris on 13th March 1919. This time, the adoring crowds would be somewhat smaller, and far less adoring... ************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 13, 2019, 9:50 p.m.

Versailles #46: First Half of March, 1919 (media.mp3)

Our largest episode yet, with an absolute legion of things to get through... it must be the first two weeks of March, 1919! Herein we see several things go down in the Council of Ten, which was still shorn of its major leaders, but which did not sit still nonetheless. The Italians get antsy over some bad Serbian behaviour, everyone gets antsy about the Germans and their army, Lloyd George returns and makes people antsy! Everyone is getting antsy, but some important work was also being done in the background, as the clock ticked down to the time when Woodrow Wilson would return, and the next phase of the Paris Peace Conference would begin... Big detailed episodes like these come to you all courtesy of the lovely patrons this podcast has, so make sure to thank them out loud right this second! And if you feel like joining the greatest group of history friends this side of audio, you know where to go and where we'll be!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 9, 2019, 9:15 p.m.

Versailles #45: William Bullitt's Mission (media.mp3)

In episode 45 of the Versailles Anniversary Project, we examine the lesser known mission of William C. Bullitt, Philadelphia aristocrat and Ivy League prodigy – at least according to his mother – who was selected to lead a top secret American delegation to Soviet Russia. Bullitt’s aims were multi-layered, and he didn’t quite understand the limits of this mission or of his own capabilities, but that won’t stop us analysing the fortunes of this very interesting statesman. Bullitt would find a Russia starving and demoralised, yet he couldn’t help but be impressed by Lenin or by the potential of this regime.  Return the food and withdraw the soldiers, Bullitt believed, and the Russian people would eject the more extreme Bolsheviks, and the West wouldn’t have to lift a finger. When Bullitt returned to Paris with these incredibly optimistic ideas, he found that everything had changed in the two and a half weeks since he had been gone. Compromise and Bolshevism were now impossible partners, and Bullitt himself had become persona non-grata in the allied consciousness. Bullitt, predictably enough, did not take this change in circumstances well… ********************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 7, 2019, 8:32 p.m.

Versailles #44: From Russia, No Love (media.mp3)

In our latest episode, we introduce you to the revolutionary wasteland that was Russia in 1919. Russia was a very confusing place at this time, because it was the subject of a lot of debate regarding that key question – should the allies launch some kind of military expedition against the Bolsheviks? That apparently simple question was complicated by the fact that the allies already had forces in different corners of Russia – 180,000 soldiers in total. How had they gotten here, why were they here, and if allied disunity over Russia’s future was the order of the day, then why hadn't they simply been allowed to return home? These questions were all difficult to answer, but as we will learn in this episode, understanding Russia is impossible unless we first get to grips with the context of 1919 Russia, and the impact which the closing months of the Great War had had on the psyche of all sides. Different factions in Russia were a dime a dozen, with Siberia, Crimean, Ukrainian, Caucasian and Far Northern fronts, among others, but the Bolsheviks had one key advantage over all of these separated foes – they were not separated, they were more united in vision and purpose than these White factions could ever claim to be. Worldwide revolution, though it had lost some of its shine, had lost none of its edge, and Lenin still very much intended to unleash this nightmare on the Western world. ************ The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 6, 2019, 11:36 a.m.

Versailles #43: Freikorps European Tour (media.mp3)

Before we delve into the Russian situation, I felt it would be beneficial, and darkly interesting, to examine what was happening in between the lands caught in the middle of the Russian and German crises. The Freikorps - disgruntled, right wing, extremist former soldiers and civilians, was exactly the wrong ingredient to help heal a fractured portion of the continent. Yet, unable to accept that their war was over, and determined to leave a mark upon the region and expand their fatherland, these men launched a campaign of utter ruthlessness for much of 1919. In this episode we examine it, as best as we can, before we set our sights firmly on Bolshevik Russia...

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 2, 2019, 8 p.m.

Versailles #42: Lodge's Reservations (media.mp3)

The unofficial second parter to our examination of Woodrow Wilson's campaign to get the League of Nations approved of back home, in episode 42 we further our analysis of the different parties and their interests in the US. Who was in favour of the League, who wanted the League with some adjustments, and who was resolutely opposed to it no matter what? Where did Henry Cabot Lodge fit into this sliding scale, and when he released his Reservations document to Congress on 28th February - wherein he underline 14 problems he had with the League as it stood - what was his end goal? Did he genuinely want the League to be improved, or, for political reasons, as well as some surprising other ones, did he want it to fail completely, and never see the light of day? As an Irish historian examining such a contentious period of American history, I must say I really had a ball in this episode, and I hope you enjoy this very important detour from our Versailles narrative. The tale of Wilson's failure forms a large part of what made the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations and the Paris Peace Conference generally such a tragic but also such a fascinating story. It is one which requires detours like these to fully grasp, so I hope you'll join me as we jump headlong into American politics once again... ********************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on March 2, 2019, 7:08 p.m.

Delegation Game #6: Power Vacuums (media.mp3)

In the aftermath of Woodrow Wilson's exit from Paris, along with the British and Italian premiers, Clemenceau was alone to hold the fort against a resurgent and empowered German delegation. It was at that moment that an anarchist's bullet felled the Tiger, which provided an unprecedented opportunity for the Germans to fill this newly emerged power vacuum. This development, as we will discover, will have profound consequences for all the delegates going forward...

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 28, 2019, 8:06 p.m.

Versailles #41: The Conference Rolls On... (media.mp3)

The last two weeks of February 1919 were awash with legions of issues, hurt feelings, long winded speeches and too many other details to possibly count. We've already seen the period from the point of view of Harold Nicolson, but was it any better of an experience for those that were actually empowered to act? Hint - not really, but to truly unpack all that this whopper episode has to offer, you must delve into it yourself!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 23, 2019, 11:26 p.m.

Versailles #40: On Tour With Harold Nicolson (media.mp3)

Spare a thought for poor old Harold Nicolson...  Mr Nicolson was a senior clerk in the British Foreign Office, and by mid-February 1919, he had already had his patience strained and his grand ambitions challenged. What lay ahead of this man once the American President departed for the US is a story not often told - the human tale. Here we hear it all and lay it bare. Between the period of 19th February and 9th March 1919, this clerk was busier than he had ever been in his life, sitting in primarily on the Greek and Czech Committees, but he was not just a busy man, he was also a disillusioned man. From consulting Nicolson's diary we can see clear as day the sheer exhaustion and frustration with the whole process begin to take root and then take over. Nicolson would lash out at Czech delegates, he would work until the sun came up, and then he would return to his desk only to find that the Foreign Office had delivered the latest boxes of papers for him to sift through. It was a job which no man could do for long, but thanks to the record which Nicolson provides, the Paris Peace Conference looms into view and we can see it for what it really was - a great idea on paper, but one which was disastrously executed. Though he was only one clerk among many, one could imagine that if an expert like Nicolson was feeling the strain, his colleagues would be feeling it too... To access the Foreign Relations of the US papers which I allude to in this episode, which provides the minutes for the Council of Ten from 15 Feb-14th March and beyond, follow this link: https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1919Parisv04 ***************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 19, 2019, 8:45 p.m.

Versailles #39: OTD 19 Feb 1919 - Clemenceau's 'Accident' (media.mp3)

Today in history, a deranged assailant attacked the father of victory, plunging France and all of Europe into a panic, and setting off the next phase of the Paris Peace Conference...

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 17, 2019, 5:49 p.m.

Versailles #38: Wrestling With Wilson (media.mp3)

Today we bravely venture to where this podcast normally steers clear - American politics. This is an essential trip though, because we must examine what happened in the US once the President returned there to present his League between 20 February and 8 March 1919. This period was spent campaigning for the new world order which Wilson so desperately wanted, and which he had fought for in person in Paris for a month. Yet, underneath the surface, and even underneath the open opposition which Republicans and Democrats alike mounted against his vision, there were other issues which Wilson had brought upon himself, and others which have since been laid at his feet regardless of fault. It was an immensely challenging time, and would ultimately come to be known the unsuccessful sequel to the Paris Peace Conference - the Treaty Fight... ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 16, 2019, 11:12 p.m.

Delegation Game #5: King Albert's Honour (media.mp3)

Oh boy, this is gonna be a good one! Episode 5 of the Delegation Game examines the aftermath of some pretty important deals which were passed, by hook or by crook, and which now challenge those present in Paris to adapt. The League of Nations Charter is the most significant of these, and in this very eventful, chunky episode, we examine the perspective of the King of the Belgians, Albert I, who was selected to chair this meeting according to the League's Charter. What's that? Woodrow Wilson wasn't selected? Well now, the President won't be happy about that will he? Within are additional alternative history developments, as the Germans shock the world by becoming accredited delegates in the Council of Ten, the French have a fit, and Dinglebrush Dinglebrushes... ************* The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 14, 2019, 6:20 p.m.

Versailles #37: OTD 14th Feb 1919 - Wilson Presents His League (media.mp3)

OTD in history 100 years ago – the League of Nations was given a covenant, stamped and signed with seals of approval from all the attending allied powers that had taken so long to reach this decision. The first two weeks of February 1919 had indeed been eventful and exhausting for many, but this here was the first piece of true, genuine progress that had been reached. It was Woodrow Wilson’s greatest achievement, and it was also the culmination of several days of very intense meetings, not to mention a mountain of paperwork. The dreamers, schemers and idealogues that had crafted the covenant all deserved mention, but on this day in history a century ago, before a packed audience in Quai d’Orsay, it was the American President and he alone that became its figurehead. Perhaps, when one looked deeper though, they could detect an element of anxiety on the part of Wilson. It had been created, but now it would have to be defended, before a suspicious and frustrated series of audiences back home in the United States. The real question then remained not how had it been done, per se, but could it be preserved after Wilson presented his baby to Congress. Spoiler – Wilson had another series of intensive weeks ahead of him. ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 12, 2019, 8:58 p.m.

Versailles #36: The Pressures of Detail and Time (media.mp3)

Gathering together on 12th February, time was of the essence, a fact which had certainly been relevant before, but which the allies had still somehow managed to essentially ignore. On this day though, the allies could not ignore the fact that Germany was a sticky situation, one which was so sticky in fact, that they would still be dealing with the core question several months later. How could the allies simultaneously do everything which the conference demanded of them while also disarming Germany, or even determining the extent to which she should be disarmed? It was an immensely difficult balancing act, yet it was very important to get it right, because if the allies didn’t disarm Germany soon, they would be swamped with expenses relating to maintaining so many soldiers at once, most of whom remained idle. A solution was supposed to be at hand, because the allies had actually worked to create a committee whose task was to devise these military terms. Yet, this committee was not able to bring anything revolutionary to the table, as the allies learned for themselves this afternoon 100 years ago. Thus, in the absence of time, and with the severe pressures weighing down on them, the allies decided that in order to give Germany the attention to detail it required, yet another committee would be required. Seriously though, this time, their committee would actually do stuff – it would be empowered to act independently of the Council of Ten and its terms for Germany could be imagined without the constant intervention of the American President, who was about to go on a considerable vacation himself. Facing into this administrative abyss, it was only sensible that some delegating be done, but it remained to be seen how, when under the pressures of detail and time, the allies would actually reach a settlement that pleased everyone and achieved their goals. They better hurry, because the next day would be all about another issue altogether – the League of Nations… ****************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 11, 2019, 8:25 p.m.

Versailles #35: An Innocent Abroad? (media.mp3)

You know the story of 'plucky little Belgium', but what about the Belgium after the war? After all they had been through, facing the might of the German Army in its initial unrelenting phase, Belgium had unquestionably been through the ringer. The question was though, what would the Belgian Foreign Minister Paul Hymans now ask for in return? The answer to that question was more incredible - read, ridiculous - than any of the allies could have imagined. As Hymans put forward his laundry list of demands, with no thought for how Belgium's neighbours would be compensated, visions of disaster were pouring forth from French strategists. Linking the Low Countries and France together was essential, it was said, if this war was to be avoided in the future. The guilty Germans would certainly try again if they sniffed any hints of weakness in the west, but what of the innocents, innocents like Belgium, who had been caught up in the midst of this Franco-German enmity, and been utterly destroyed? In return for this ordeal, Paul Hymans would demand a high price, but neither his aims nor the eerily prophetic French fears could ever be humoured to the extent that either party felt was deserved. This, of course, was the nature of the Peace Conference. Using detailed secondary sources and the actual minutes of the meetings where the Belgian Foreign Minister poured out his heart, I am privileged to be able to bring this story to you now. The allies had to listen to the naive Belgian ramble, but whether they would actually heed his warnings or accede to his demands was another story altogether, and it's a story which is well worth your time! ********* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 10, 2019, 7:45 p.m.

Versailles#34: On The Big Four (media.mp3)

The latest episode of the project hones in on three specific days – the 8, 9 and 10 of February 1919, as we build up to the moment when David Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson returned home for various reasons. Both figures had a lot on their mind even before they had left, but before the American President could return home, he would at least have to face the full brunt of the paranoid French in action. At least, they seemed paranoid enough to him. The French demands, and the insistence that the Germans intended at any moment to avenge themselves upon allied divisions or weaknesses, struck Wilson as extremely far-fetched. Not for the first or for the last time, the American President was rubbed the wrong way by French severity towards Germany. Wilson didn’t understand this extreme angle of Clemenceau, but then, how could he, since America had not been invaded by its neighbour two times in as many generations. If this episode’s purpose could be summarised in four words, then it would read ‘Clemenceau’s battle with Germany.’ It was impossible, Clemenceau insisted, to leave Germany to her own devices. He was not interested in anything – not the League of Nations, not mandates, not Russia – so long as Germany remained unresolved as a problem. Clemenceau imagined that as soon as the final peace treaty was concluded, the British and Americans would leave the French to face their adversary alone. To guard against this, Clemenceau planned to drive a hard bargain in four key areas with respect to Germany – in the case of the Rhineland, the industrial Saarland, Germany’s eastern border and on the question of reparations. To Clemenceau it was vital that these matters were worked out in France’s favour, but he came up constantly against the resistance of the American President. The honeymoon period between Premier and President certainly appeared to be over, yet there was much work still to be done… *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 9, 2019, 7:59 p.m.

Delegation Game #4: Beginnings and Endings (media.mp3)

The latest instalment of the game sees everyone feeling somewhat traumatised from the massacre at the Hotel Twamley, but the show must go on! Schemes were afoot even as the Canadian Premier delivered a eulogy for his late great friend, and as the Russian delegate, Alexander Kerensky, worked to find his footing in such hostile circumstances, he found that potential allies and rivals were all around him in equal measure. Amidst the chaos and hopelessness, Kerensky would happen upon some unlikely allies, who had plans even more ambitious and grand than one could have possibly imagined... *************** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 8, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #33: We Need To Talk About Germany (media.mp3)

In episode 33, we assess the day of 7th February, where the allies attempted to respond to what the Germans had done the previous day of 6th Feb, when the Constituent Assembly gathered in Weimar. The only problem with this allied approach was that no single man knew what exactly was happening in Germany. They were armed only with vague ideas and preconceived notions, and certainly no practical solutions. The French offered venom and wrath, the British caution, the Americans sympathy. It was impossible to decide upon the future either of Germany or the peace conference as a whole when everything seemed to be in flux, but this would not stop the allies from trying their best. As talk of Germany continued, so did plans for creating the ideal version of the League of Nations. After being presented only the previous week, a commission had gotten to work sorting through the difficulties and disagreements, which were unfortunately legion. The French, much like in the case of the German question, posed the most problems in the League discussion. But was this fair to blame the French? Could we instead be more justified in blaming the American President? Was Woodrow Wilson to blame for failing to delegate, and for viewing the creation of the League as his one truly important purpose? As we will learn here, the consensus is not present on any of these questions, because the truth is far from so simple… *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 6, 2019, 3 a.m.

Versailles #32: OTD 6th Feb 1919 - Weimar Convenes (media.mp3)

The Weimar Assembly convened on this day 100 years ago, beginning a process which contained so much high hopes and ambitions for Germany's first flirtation with democracy. Between February 1919 and June 1920, Germany would be in flux as a new constitution was developed, governments came and went, and Friedrich Ebert stood above them all... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 5, 2019, 8:37 p.m.

Versailles #31: Eastern Appeals (media.mp3)

What happens when the Czechs, Romanians and Yugoslavs all try to make their voices heard, as the Big Five attempt to do their best to seem interested? What you get is this episode! A deliciously detailed examination of each of the cases made by the individual national leaders, in addition to a curious detour where we look at maps could be fudged to suit an argument! All this and more in your latest episode of the Versailles Anniversary Project! *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 3, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #30: Not Yet Lost (media.mp3)

Poland's experience at the Paris Peace Conference contained its fair share of ups and downs, and nowhere was this more apparent in the early phases of the conference when its case was first presented. Poland was facing into a power vacuum and with that came great opportunities, but also grave challenges. How could Poland balance the rivalry of its major figures, Paderewski, Pilsudski and Dmowski? How could Poles balance the rivalry of its neighbours? Could Poland push back Bolshevism? Could Europe be persuaded to see things Poland's way, or was there little chance of Poland ever getting what it wanted, so long as people like David Lloyd George remained so utterly opposed to the realisation of her national ambition? Have a listen here to find out all these answers, and be introduced to the Polish case like never before... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Feb. 2, 2019, 5:57 p.m.

Delegation Game #3: Creators & Killers (media.mp3)

As the Hotel Twamley fills with guests, nobody could have imagined what happened next. A combination of factors, certainly not aided by the strong drink on tap, led to an explosion the likes of which Paris had never seen before, or imagined possible. The consequences would be fatal, but also had the effect of changing the narrative, and making compromise more palatable to some of the more stubborn delegates. From the most tragic of events did the greatest triumphs seem to emerge... ********* The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 30, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #29: OTD 30th Jan 1919 - An Empire In All But Name (media.mp3)

VERSAILLES_EPISODE_29_OUT_NOW! On this day 100 years ago, the world was getting to grips with the concept of mandates, also known as Empire 2.0. Several different opinions existed regarding the concept, but something which was becoming increasingly obvious was that Woodrow Wilson wanted to wait before defining it, until the League of Nations was good and ready, David Lloyd George wanted to get on with things and at least make provisional decisions, and Georges Clemenceau sat awkwardly in the middle. Everyone wanted on the one hand to give their loud approval of the concept, while at the same time demonstrating why mandates couldn’t possibly apply to them. New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, France – everyone had ideas about what a mandate would look like and why direct annexation was better. Lloyd George for his part believed that everyone had best get on with things, but it wasn’t long before the Big Three were in loggerheads, while everyone pretty much ignored poor old Vittorio Orlando. Another day meant another set of meetings, but while the 30th January 1919 was a day where mandates were clarified to their greatest extent yet, it was another classic case of kicking the can down the road. This left everyone free to take what they wanted from this new concept; a mandate, indeed could be anything you wanted it to be – it could be an empire in all but name… ************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 27, 2019, 11:54 p.m.

Versailles #28: Explaining Mandates (media.mp3)

In our 28th installment, we attempt to explain mandates - that surprisingly elusive concept which it was the task of those assembled in Paris to understand. Once they understood it and got to grips with how mandates would fit into the international system, it was hoped that then, this new mandates system would usher in a new era of freedom and prosperity for the formerly colonial peoples...but not all formerly colonial peoples...just those of the vanquished powers. In a prime example of 'one rule for me and one rule for everyone else', the victorious allies insisted that they had ruled their territories as benevolent actors more interested in the well-being and fortunes of their subjects than in imperial prestige, markets or resources. All assembled would trip over themselves on the 27 and 28 January in a bid to portray their rule as that which had benefited the colonies. Furthermore, on the basis of this idea that their record spoke for itself, the allies argued that mandates were not really necessary in many cases, because the world could trust them to directly rule the former colonies of Germany and the Ottoman Empire. Convinced or not, what these powers neglected to do with much effect or conviction was actually DEFINE what a mandate was, and what role or future it would have in the new international system. The grab for spoils, it seemed, dominated the imaginations of the allies and their dominions. Was this a new era, or was it simply more of the same? The jury might have been absent, but the ambition to rule certainly was not... ******************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 25, 2019, 10:48 p.m.

Delegation Game #2: Resolution, Revolution, Retribution (media.mp3)

Maybe following the REAL story of Versailles makes you feel glum. If so, why not follow a different tale - that of 37 delegates doing their part to have their own way and achieve their goals...by making a really big historical mess! As the League of Nations stood ready for presenting to the Plenary Conference in Paris, there was much going on in the Hotel Twamley... In the second episode the DG, we follow the fate of Lloyd George, as he attempted to confront the man responsible for imagining a proposal for devolved government in Ireland. What awaited the British Prime Minister when he met with Joseph Doherty face to face was a scene which was nothing like what Lloyd George had expected. He was out of his element, and he was at a loss, but perhaps there was silver lining? As the PM worked through this difficult experience, the Intermarium Free Trade Agreement was causing a great deal of controversy among those nations who felt overlooked or disadvantaged because of it. The Polish, Italian, Greek, Hungarian and Russian delegates had found success in this proposal, but the mission for defending it had the potential to unite all their enemies against them. The test was just about to begin... ********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 25, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #27: OTD 25th Jan 1919 - Wilson's Dream Realised (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 25TH JANUARY 1919 The first steps of the League of Nations were taken on this day a century ago, as the world learned exactly what Woodrow Wilson's idea meant for them and the future relations of so many states. What kind of principles would be adhered to, and which ones would be abandoned? How could Wilson traverse the objections, cynicism and scepticism of his friends and rivals? What did other people who were present at the time have to say about this second plenary conference? Considering the fact that the world had been welcomed to Paris, it was strange indeed that this was only the second time that all of its inhabitants had been welcomed together at once, but they were not here to debate or change Wilson's mind, only to listen and hopefully approve. This was the president's dream, and as far as was concerned only HE was qualified to make this dream a reality... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 24, 2019, 12:01 a.m.

Versailles #26: A League of Extraordinary Nations (media.mp3)

Before the League of Nations could be presented to the world, it was necessary to build up to that great and seismic event by examining...Russia? That didn't sound quite right, and yet the Council of Ten or Supreme Council worked through the 20-24 January as though the League of Extraordinary Nations which they were about to chair was weeks, rather than days away. In these circumstances, how could a coherent proposal for reimagining international relations be prepared on time? Mercifully, the committees were on the case, but this didn't mean that matters would proceed at all smoothly... ************ The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 21, 2019, midnight

Versailles #25: OTD 21st Jan 1919 - An Irish Eruption (media.mp3)

The Irish problem had not solved itself. Ever since the aftermath of the 1916 Rising, the neighbouring island had provided troubling signs of a future catastrophe, and with the proclamation of the Dáil or Irish assembly coinciding with an attack launched on Royal Irish Constabulary policemen, the catastrophe seemed to have arrived. The conflict which followed did not erupt evenly across the island. Instead it took the form of several ripples; a murder here, a robbery there, a high profile assassination somewhere in between. It was however, an unmistakable fact that Ireland was becoming more volatile. With the political mandate vested in Sinn Fein, violent Irish nationalism had reached a level of popularity and acceptance previously unknown, and this in turn meant that Britain faced an island mobilised more completely against her occupation and domination than ever before. Such facts were painfully awkward at a time when David Lloyd George was attempting to cast British rule as benevolent and civilising, as a force for good and as a facilitator of self-determination movements across the globe. Why, critics could ask, was London then ignoring its closest neighbours, in their quest to attain independent self-rule? These questions and so many more were etched into what became, by the summer of 1919, the Irish War of Independence, but the opening shots, in politics and on the battlefield, were fired on this day 100 years ago, when Ireland launched its bid for independence on a scale and with a passion never before seen or imagined possible... ***** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 18, 2019, 4:29 p.m.

Delegation Game #1: Welcome To Paris! (media.mp3)

Welcome delegates, to the first proper episode of the Delegation Game! Here we see everyone in the few hours before the plenary conference opened, and the Paris Peace Conference as we know it began. There was much to do, there was scheming aplenty and a great deal of opportunistic handshaking going on, as the delegations and the lonely delegates alike scoped out Hotel Twamley which would host them for the next six months. I am so incredibly excited and proud to present this to you guys - an idea which began around the time of the Armistice in November has ballooned in size and scope, to the point that I can now count 33 delegates, a number which is only set to increase as we go on. For those that have signed up and are playing the game, thanks so much for making this idea of mine a reality. For those that have yet to sign up, I hope this episode will indicate what's in store for you - absolutely every person that is mention here is played by a real person, and the negotiations continue in the Facebook group and the innumerable chat groups which await your presence! There is far too much going on here to list in detail, but if you want to learn more about what's going on, who is who and where their goals might lead, make sure and access the section of our website where we deal exclusively with the Delegation Game. For more information please don't hesitate to contact me through the usual channels! ****************** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 18, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #24: OTD 18th Jan 1919 - The World Convenes At Paris (media.mp3)

OTD IN HISTORY - 18TH JANUARY 1919 - THE PEACE CONFERENCE OPENS! We finally made it, to the point of a new beginning for the world, in the war torn locations where so many foreign faces were travelling, and upon which so much hope had been places. There was a lot riding on the Paris Peace Conference, and those present on its very first plenary session, attended by all delegates then available in Paris, and a gigantic press corps, could not hide their excitement or positivity. It seemed as though anything was possible, with the world assembled here, to make a better peace for a better world. How could any power present deny the importance of peace? How could any power deny the importance of new institutions to safeguard the peace of the world like the League of Nations? Surely, only the wicked, the cynical, the deceitful, would dare ruin this goal of all civilised nations? Surely cooperation would be easily gained for the grandest of Woodrow Wilson's plans? Surely the world would not be let down by selfishness or fail to realise its potential? But the pragmatists knew better. They knew better because they had seen the true extent of the problems, some impossibly complex, others straightforward but no less intractable. Even those that had attended the previous week's meetings knew that arriving at consensus was not going to be as easy as they may have initially expected. But they were here, and they were eager to forge a lasting peace. The will and the intelligence was present, and the moment of truth had arrived, to put these qualities to their ultimate test... *************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 15, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #23: Settling Into Paris (media.mp3)

I am SO EXCITED to bring you all this episode. This is exactly what this project is all about - a comprehensive examination of primary sources, left to us by those that were in place and charged with TAKING charge a century ago. Here we cover the period of 13-17 January 1919, using the minutes of the Paris Peace Conference, provided by the US Foreign Relations papers series as our guide. I am super keen to hear what you all thought, but read on if you want to know more about this very chunky episode before you get started... By 15th January 1919, everyone of importance had arrived, but there was much work to be done before this world summit could open. In #23, we examine this body of work which preceded the official opening of the Paris Peace Conference. Join us as we drift between the major characters, assessing the major concerns of each, and the ways in which their aims created controversy and friction with their counterparts. It was not an easy task to make everyone feel on the same page, and the list of issues which each day threw up are too numerous to go into sufficient detail here. Suffice to say, in this episode, a whole range of problems come under our microscope, at the centre of them was Germany. Germany was the defeated power, yet she was not conquered. She was beaten, yet she could not be aggressively punished. She had been the enemy, yet the allies knew they would have to provide food for her people, otherwise a more sinister force would overthrow the fledgling German democracy before it had even left the cradle. This force was Bolshevism, moving like a torrent from the east, and the conflict reigned between those that feared pushing Germans too hard would occasion their succumbing to Bolshevism, and those that reasoned, whatever happened, the Germans had to be made to pay. The tension between these two viewpoints grew only larger as the difference in opinion became greater, and this all before the Conference had officially opened. But, then again, what was this Conference? Was it a preliminary, inter-allied gathering, designed to formulate the main terms of the peace treaty, which would then be left in the hands of minor diplomats to hammer out? Other questions abounded - what form of censorship should be used, did they need another committee? What would the official language of the Conference be? French, or English, or French and English? Why not Italian and Japanese then as well? How large should each of the smaller power's delegations be, and did the dominions have to have delegates since Britain could speak for them? Could Britain actually speak for them, or was the Empire, now the Commonwealth, past that point of deference to the mother country? The week preceding the official opening of the Conference, in short, threw up just as many questions, if not more, than answers. But one thing which was certain was that this Conference would remain in place in Paris, near the Palace of Versailles where the Supreme War Council had met in months past. Furthermore, a Supreme Council or Council of Ten would sit, composed of the premier and Foreign Minister of each of the five major powers (USA, UK, France, Italy and Japan) and this group would make executive decisions, guided by the appointed President of the Council, Georges Clemenceau. Administration and organisation were surely the intended goals of the week before the 18th January, but instead, this was for many the week when the scales began to fall from their eyes, and they began to come to terms with the sheer size of the challenge which loomed before them... ****************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access a...

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 12, 2019, 1:30 a.m.

Versailles #22: OTD 12 Jan 1919 - Lloyd George Makes Three (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 12th January 1919 - David Lloyd George arrives in Paris for the preliminary peace talks. Before the Paris Peace Conference opened, it was important for all sides to meet and talk together. As all three men spoke English well, Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George could be expected to do the bulk of the negotiating personally. However, the initial set up of the Conference did not allow this personal arrangement, so the three men took advantage of that precious week before the conference officially opened, during the preliminaries, to build relationships, wrest concessions and have a ramble around the French capital. The arrival of the British PM on 12 January kicked the preliminaries into high gear, and from the beginning, it became clear that everyone had travelled to Paris with a degree of optimism, but also with their own aims and ambitions. The Italians, as well, could not be ignored, and their support and assent for certain agreements was clearly going to be necessary if the wheels were to be greased and everything moved along. Give and take would have to be the motto of the day, if any progress was to be made... *********************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 11, 2019, 8:19 p.m.

The Delegation Game - How To Play (media.mp3)

With the launch of the Delegation Game only a week away (on 18th Jan 2019) I thought it'd be beneficial to set out some detail about this fantastic explosion of nerdiness, and what you need to do in order to take part. We look at some tools which the game will avail of, investigate what kind of impact your scheming can have on the proceedings, outline the structure of each episode going forward, and close the episode with some FAQ's, so that we're all on the same page. The Delegation Game is a seriously exciting effort by yours truly to engage more completely with the source material and era which the Versailles situation provides. I've already been blown away by the interest and enthusiasm shown, but if you'd like to know more, then this episode is for you! We launch in a week, so make sure you take your seat in Paris! Thankssss, and I'll see you all there soon! ********** The Delegation Game is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 10, 2019, 1:04 a.m.

Versailles #21: Spartacists in Berlin! (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 10th January 1919 - the Spartacist Uprising reaches its apex - before it is brutally crushed in Berlin. Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were the most prolific casualties, but much more was going on beneath the surface than simply the execution of Germany's communist extremists. The establishment of organisations like the Freikorps, and the struggle for order and law in this defeated, depressed country, contain more than enough stories all by themselves.  In this episode, we will conclude our examination of this ill-fated uprising, assessing why it failed, what its aims were, whether it could have succeeded and how its impact was felt across the country and among the allies. Did it make the allies more or less eager to bring Germany to peace, before she succumbed to Bolshevism altogether? Let's find out, as we go back in time... **************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 8, 2019, 1:12 a.m.

Versailles #20: Germany and Revolution (media.mp3)

Germany was in dire straits by the time revolutionaries began taking over the streets in early 1919. Bolshevism was spreading westwards, but perhaps the most potent ingredient in this spread was the lack of available food, and the endless opportunities this gave rabble rousers to cause anarchy and chaos on an unimaginable scale. Hunger was a more powerful weapon than any political message, and the combination of this desperation for a solution and the despair at the lack of aid - not to mention the continuing blockade - would soon spell disaster. Initially Germans held it together, but they could only keep the lid on the boil for so long before it all erupted. Here, we examine the background to the infamous Spartacist Uprising which seemed to threaten the end of Germany as the world knew it! ************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 8, 2019, 1:12 a.m.

Versailles #20: Germany and Revolution (media.mp3)

Germany was in dire straits by the time revolutionaries began taking over the streets in early 1919. Bolshevism was spreading westwards, but perhaps the most potent ingredient in this spread was the lack of available food, and the endless opportunities this gave rabble rousers to cause anarchy and chaos on an unimaginable scale. Hunger was a more powerful weapon than any political message, and the combination of this desperation for a solution and the despair at the lack of aid - not to mention the continuing blockade - would soon spell disaster. Initially Germans held it together, but they could only keep the lid on the boil for so long before it all erupted. Here, we examine the background to the infamous Spartacist Uprising which seemed to threaten the end of Germany as the world knew it! ************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 3, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #19: Wilson Goes To Rome (media.mp3)

OVER_THIS_PERIOD_IN_HISTORY - the first week of January 1919 - Woodrow Wilson begins his tour of Italy! In Italy, as in France, the citizens of that exhausted country were excited indeed to received the American President, and for six days until his departure on 6th January, Wilson travelled across Italy meeting everyone from the Pope to the King to the Premier. His mission was one of networking and publicity, and it went well, even if the Italians, deep down, did not gel particularly well with Wilson's vision of a new world. The world Wilson imagined, that of cooperation, and end to imperialism and peace, was in contrast to an Italian leadership and people who expected to be rewarded for their entry into the war. In time, the tension would explode, and Italy would get nothing at Wilson's insistence, a bitterness which helped facilitate Mussolini's acsendency. Initially at least, however, the Italian people were Wilson's friends. ********************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Jan. 3, 2019, 2 a.m.

Versailles #19: Wilson Goes To Rome (media.mp3)

OVER_THIS_PERIOD_IN_HISTORY - the first week of January 1919 - Woodrow Wilson begins his tour of Italy! In Italy, as in France, the citizens of that exhausted country were excited indeed to received the American President, and for six days until his departure on 6th January, Wilson travelled across Italy meeting everyone from the Pope to the King to the Premier. His mission was one of networking and publicity, and it went well, even if the Italians, deep down, did not gel particularly well with Wilson's vision of a new world. The world Wilson imagined, that of cooperation, and end to imperialism and peace, was in contrast to an Italian leadership and people who expected to be rewarded for their entry into the war. In time, the tension would explode, and Italy would get nothing at Wilson's insistence, a bitterness which helped facilitate Mussolini's acsendency. Initially at least, however, the Italian people were Wilson's friends. ********************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 26, 2018, 2:01 a.m.

Versailles #18: OTD 26 Dec 1918 - Wilson Goes To London (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 26th December 1918 - Woodrow Wilson meets David Lloyd George in London! Hope you're all not TOO full of foodstuffs, because we have an important little bulletin to bring to you! The US President's visit to London in late 1918 was significant for a myriad of reasons - not least of which was the sight of an American President getting a horse and carriage ride through the city's streets! Who would ever have imagined that such displays were possible between former colony and former master? Now these powers were firm friends, and the relationship between President and PM would only improve as time went on, and the two men realised they had more and more in common, to the detriment of the French premier of course, who quickly became something of an outsider.  Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to you history friends!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 26, 2018, 2:01 a.m.

Versailles #18: OTD 26 Dec 1918 - Wilson Goes To London (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 26th December 1918 - Woodrow Wilson meets David Lloyd George in London! Hope you're all not TOO full of foodstuffs, because we have an important little bulletin to bring to you! The US President's visit to London in late 1918 was significant for a myriad of reasons - not least of which was the sight of an American President getting a horse and carriage ride through the city's streets! Who would ever have imagined that such displays were possible between former colony and former master? Now these powers were firm friends, and the relationship between President and PM would only improve as time went on, and the two men realised they had more and more in common, to the detriment of the French premier of course, who quickly became something of an outsider.  Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to you history friends!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 22, 2018, 7:20 p.m.

Alt-History: What If Gavrilo Princip Missed? #2 (media.mp3)

Here we conclude this incredible and early podcast Christmas present, which is 2/3 alternative history and 1/3 a breakdown of whether I believe this makes sense and why I went with what I did. How plausible was it all? You decide. This could be a very fun topic to have a number of debates on, but here we look at the opening phases of the war and what went right/wrong for each side. Irish troubles? Of course they are ever present! I hope you've enjoyed a different path instead of the dire one we got in 1914. Would the world be a better place had Princip missed? That's probably a story for another day, but for now we examine how the Entente came to collapse, and what this meant for the thoroughly victorious allies... Support and get in touch ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 22, 2018, 7:20 p.m.

Alt-History: What If Gavrilo Princip Missed? #2 (media.mp3)

Here we conclude this incredible and early podcast Christmas present, which is 2/3 alternative history and 1/3 a breakdown of whether I believe this makes sense and why I went with what I did. How plausible was it all? You decide. This could be a very fun topic to have a number of debates on, but here we look at the opening phases of the war and what went right/wrong for each side. Irish troubles? Of course they are ever present! I hope you've enjoyed a different path instead of the dire one we got in 1914. Would the world be a better place had Princip missed? That's probably a story for another day, but for now we examine how the Entente came to collapse, and what this meant for the thoroughly victorious allies... Support and get in touch ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 22, 2018, 7 p.m.

Alt-History: What If Gavrilo Princip Missed? #1 (media.mp3)

Welcome history friends, as we launch into a little sideshow I cooked up for you all. This is the first in a chunky 2-parter series on alternative history, where we build a different world in the style you're used to, having asked the question - what would have happened if Gavrilo Princip missed, rather than actually successfully assassinated the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand? Using all I've gathered in my years studying the First World War and the July Crisis in particular, I give you my answer, so I hope you enjoy it! Over the course of the episode we will look at several threads, such as the change in Serbian government and increasing tensions provoking reactionary policies across the Balkans, it remained to be seen whether the European alliance system would save the peace or help destroy it. Find out here, and remember to catch part 2! Support the show! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 22, 2018, 7 p.m.

Alt-History: What If Gavrilo Princip Missed? #1 (media.mp3)

Welcome history friends, as we launch into a little sideshow I cooked up for you all. This is the first in a chunky 2-parter series on alternative history, where we build a different world in the style you're used to, having asked the question - what would have happened if Gavrilo Princip missed, rather than actually successfully assassinated the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand? Using all I've gathered in my years studying the First World War and the July Crisis in particular, I give you my answer, so I hope you enjoy it! Over the course of the episode we will look at several threads, such as the change in Serbian government and increasing tensions provoking reactionary policies across the Balkans, it remained to be seen whether the European alliance system would save the peace or help destroy it. Find out here, and remember to catch part 2! Support the show! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 20, 2018, 2 a.m.

Versailles #17: The Big Three En Route (media.mp3)

You've been introduced to the Big Three of Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George - you know their aims, their backstories and their fears. What happens though when these men gather together in the same room? Could they possibly cooperate? Could their varied viewpoints and aims be reconciled? Before the Paris Peace Conference opened, I feel it'd be useful to take each of the three men under our microscope again, and refresh ourselves on what they wanted, what they did NOT want, and that grey area where they could see themselves compromising. This episode will conveniently tie together all we've learned about the three men so far, and it is our last episode of the Versailles project before Christmas, so have a listen, refresh yourself, and I hope you have a safe and happy holiday season festivity Christmas food time! I think I covered all my bases! Thankssss :D  ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 20, 2018, 2 a.m.

Versailles #17: The Big Three En Route (media.mp3)

You've been introduced to the Big Three of Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George - you know their aims, their backstories and their fears. What happens though when these men gather together in the same room? Could they possibly cooperate? Could their varied viewpoints and aims be reconciled? Before the Paris Peace Conference opened, I feel it'd be useful to take each of the three men under our microscope again, and refresh ourselves on what they wanted, what they did NOT want, and that grey area where they could see themselves compromising. This episode will conveniently tie together all we've learned about the three men so far, and it is our last episode of the Versailles project before Christmas, so have a listen, refresh yourself, and I hope you have a safe and happy holiday season festivity Christmas food time! I think I covered all my bases! Thankssss :D  ************* The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 14, 2018, 5:38 a.m.

Versailles #16: OTD 14 Dec 1918 - Coupon Election (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 14th December 1918 - The Coupon Election secures Lloyd George's Coalition Government. It had long been expected that Lloyd George would call for an election at the end of the war, to beat off challenges to his position from both sides of the political spectrum, and to secure his mandate for the looming peace conference. Much was said about punishing Germany during the campaign trail, and making her pay what she owed to Britain and everyone else. The British electorate were thus heavy with expectation once their PM left for France in the new year - they anticipated Lloyd George would drive a hard bargain, and wrest concessions from the defeated foe which would vindicate their losses. As Lloyd George discovered, but probably knew already deep down, it wasn't so simple as taking things from Germany. Lloyd George, whatever his white lies, did managed to secure a mandate from the British electorate with this election. It was the most votes ever cast in any election in British history, and for the first time ever, women were also entitled to vote (so long as they were over 30 and were connected to someone with at least £5 of property that is...). The Coupon Election - so called for the curious way with which the incumbent government represented itself, with a coupon that indicated the loyalty of several varied candidates - was a success for the PM, but dark clouds were on the horizon. In Ireland, the old Irish Parliamentary Party had been wiped out by a new force called Sinn Fein, which refused to take its seats at Westminster. Within a month, a guerrilla war would erupt in Ireland, instigated by the decision of those Irish MPs to set up their own Parliament in Dublin. Still though, for the moment, Lloyd George could be happy. It was the result which Woodrow Wilson would have died for, because it granted a mandate for everything he did later, and demonstrated the faith and gratitude which the British people wished to express in their wartime leader. ***************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 14, 2018, 5:38 a.m.

Versailles #16: OTD 14 Dec 1918 - Coupon Election (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 14th December 1918 - The Coupon Election secures Lloyd George's Coalition Government. It had long been expected that Lloyd George would call for an election at the end of the war, to beat off challenges to his position from both sides of the political spectrum, and to secure his mandate for the looming peace conference. Much was said about punishing Germany during the campaign trail, and making her pay what she owed to Britain and everyone else. The British electorate were thus heavy with expectation once their PM left for France in the new year - they anticipated Lloyd George would drive a hard bargain, and wrest concessions from the defeated foe which would vindicate their losses. As Lloyd George discovered, but probably knew already deep down, it wasn't so simple as taking things from Germany. Lloyd George, whatever his white lies, did managed to secure a mandate from the British electorate with this election. It was the most votes ever cast in any election in British history, and for the first time ever, women were also entitled to vote (so long as they were over 30 and were connected to someone with at least £5 of property that is...). The Coupon Election - so called for the curious way with which the incumbent government represented itself, with a coupon that indicated the loyalty of several varied candidates - was a success for the PM, but dark clouds were on the horizon. In Ireland, the old Irish Parliamentary Party had been wiped out by a new force called Sinn Fein, which refused to take its seats at Westminster. Within a month, a guerrilla war would erupt in Ireland, instigated by the decision of those Irish MPs to set up their own Parliament in Dublin. Still though, for the moment, Lloyd George could be happy. It was the result which Woodrow Wilson would have died for, because it granted a mandate for everything he did later, and demonstrated the faith and gratitude which the British people wished to express in their wartime leader. ***************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 13, 2018, 3 a.m.

Versailles #15: OTD 13 Dec 1918 - Wilson's Welcome (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 13th December 1918 - US President Woodrow Wilson lands in France. Woodrow Wilson had a vital role to play in the Treaty of Versailles, and was certainly the most dynamic actor in the Paris Peace Conference. Apparently immune to the old trappings of statecraft, intrigue and power, Wilson represented something new and promising for those French citizens and Europeans who were sick of war and who longed for something better. Wilson's rapturous welcome convinced him that he had done the right thing by deciding to travel to Paris personally, even though many had disapproved back home. Flattered, excited, vindicated though he was, the reception did not last. Wilson would never be so popular in France again... *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 13, 2018, 3 a.m.

Versailles #15: OTD 13 Dec 1918 - Wilson's Welcome (media.mp3)

ON_THIS_DAY_IN_HISTORY - 13th December 1918 - US President Woodrow Wilson lands in France. Woodrow Wilson had a vital role to play in the Treaty of Versailles, and was certainly the most dynamic actor in the Paris Peace Conference. Apparently immune to the old trappings of statecraft, intrigue and power, Wilson represented something new and promising for those French citizens and Europeans who were sick of war and who longed for something better. Wilson's rapturous welcome convinced him that he had done the right thing by deciding to travel to Paris personally, even though many had disapproved back home. Flattered, excited, vindicated though he was, the reception did not last. Wilson would never be so popular in France again... *********** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!

From When Diplomacy Fails Podcast on Dec. 12, 2018, 5:56 p.m.

Versailles #14: David Lloyd George Profile Part 2/2 (media.mp3)

David Lloyd George's assent to the top of the greasy pole came at a difficult time for Britain and the allied war effort. The war did not appear near its end after all; instead the bloody stalemate had begun to tell, on all sides, and 1916 had been a year of crushing disappointments. Faced with a crisis in confidence, PM Asquith made way for the last Liberal Prime Minister of the age, Lloyd George, who ensured by early 1917 that he had the support of his colleagues in the wartime coalition to continue on with the war in the manner that he saw fit. Lloyd George's vision was tempered by realities and the hard lessons which still lay ahead, but he was at his best when delegating to his colleagues, when relinquishing something of his iron grip on power, and when accepting that sharing the load was the best way to win the war. New men were made and old men retreated from public life in disgust, but Lloyd George wasn't here to make friends. His single minded determination to win this damned war earned him admiration and appreciation, but it also represented the greatest test he had yet faced. That is, of course, until he had to craft the peace. Join us here as we unravel the traits which helped Lloyd George lead Britain to victory, no matter the cost... ******************** The Versailles Anniversary Project is possible because of your support and interest - make sure to spread the word, engage with the debate, and look at the different ways you can help this project succeed! ->Visit the homeland for this new project! ->Become a delegate and play the Delegation Game for just $6 a month! ->Support the podcast financially and access ad free episodes with transcripts from just $2 a month!  ->Follow WDF on Twitter!  ->Join the Facebook group! ->Subscribe on iTunes!