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A journey through the 5000 years of history documented by one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. For all the episodes for free, as well as additional content, please subscribe and/or visit http://thehistoryofchina.wordpress.com .


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From The History of China at 2022-09-25 13:48:52

#241 - Ming 28: Wokou! Wokou! A Pirate's Life For Me! (media.mp3)

We're rascals and scoundrels, we're villains and knaves.

We're devils and black sheep, we're really bad eggs.

We're beggars and blighters and ne'er do-well cads,

Aye, but we're loved by our mommies and dads,

Stand up me hearties, yo ho!

Yo ho, yo ho, a pirate's life for me!


Time Period Covered:

ca. 1521-1550 CE


Sources Cited:

Andrade, Tonio and Xing Hang. “Introduction: The East Asian Maritime Realm in Global History: 1500-1700” in Sea Rovers, Silver, and Samurai: Maritime East Asia in Global History, 1500-1700.

Chin, James K. “Merchants, Smugglers, and Pirates: Multinational Clandestine Trade on the South China Coast, 1520-50” in Elusive pirates, pervasive smugglers: violence and clandestine trade in the Greater China Seas.

Geiss, James. “The Chia-ching reign, 1522-1566” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I.

Laver, Michael. “Neither Here nor There: Trade, Piracy, and the ‘Space Between’ in Early Modern East Asia” in Sea Rovers, Silver, and Samurai: Maritime East Asia in Global History, 1500-1700.

Petrucci, Maria Grazia. “Pirates, Gunpowder, and Christianity in Late Sixteenth-Century Japan” in Elusive pirates, pervasive smugglers: violence and clandestine trade in the Greater China Seas.

Wills, John E. “Maritime China from Wang Chih to Shih Lang: Themes In Peripheral History” in From Ming to Ch’ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China.




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From The History of China at 2022-09-10 10:33:09

Special - Mid-Autumn: Fly Me to the Moon (media.mp3)

A brief history of Mid-Autumn Festival, and the tale of Hou Yi the Archer & the Ten Suns, and Chang'e & the Moon


In other words, please be true

In other words, I love you.


Sources:

Barlett, Scarlett. The Mythology Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Tales.

Masaka, Mori. “Restoring the ‘Epic of Hou Yi’” in Asian Folklore Studies, vol. 52, no. 5.

Yang, Lihui, Demin An, and Jessica Anderson Turner. Handbook of Chinese Mythology.



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From The History of China at 2022-09-09 14:15:42

#240 - Ming 27: The Solecism of Power (media.mp3)

The Jiajing Emperor rounds out the back-half of his interminably long reign by hiding away in his personal palace, and only occasionally coming out to tell everyone what a terrible job they're all doing. The Mongols seize on Ming weakness to basically do whatever they want, and the Ming respond by turtling even harder and building more walls. Without a imperial guiding hand, the ministers are left to their own devices... with predictably selfish and myopic results.


Time Period Covered:

1550-1567 CE


Major Historical Figures:

Ming Empire:

The Jiajing Emperor (Zhu Houcong) [r. 1521-1567]

Gen. Qiu Ruan [d. 1552]

Grand Secretary Xia Yan [1482-1548]

Grand Secretary Yan Song [1480-1567]

Grand Secretary Xu Jie [1512-1578]


Mongolia:

Altan Khan [1507-1582]

Prince Toghto


Major Works Cited:

Bacon, Francis. “Of empire” in The essays of Francis Bacon (1908).

Geiss, James. “The Chia-ching reign, 1522-1566,” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: the Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I.




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From The History of China at 2022-09-01 14:57:08

Shanghai Update (09/01/22): Lockdown Eternal (media.mp3)

Let the state be small and the people few:

So that the people…

fearing death, will be reluctant to move great distances

and, even if they have boats and carts, will not use them.

So that the people…

Will find their food sweet and their clothes beautiful,

will be content with where they live and happy in their customs.

Though adjoining states be within sight of one another

and cocks crowing and dogs barking in one can be heard in the next,

yet the people of one state will grow old and die without having had any dealings with those of another.




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From The History of China at 2022-08-20 08:54:24

#239 - Ming 26: Red Lead Prescription (media.mp3)

The Jianwen Emperor plays shell-games with his dad's spirit tablet, decides Confucius has had it too good for too long, gets gross in his pursuit for immortality, and tries breath-play with his concubines... oh yes, and fire. So, so much fire.


Time Period Covered:

ca. 1524-1547 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Jiajing Emperor (Zhu Houcong) [r. 1521-1567]

Empress Dowager Zhang [r. 1505-1541]

Empress Chen [r. 1522-1528]

Empress Zhang [r. 1529-1534]

Empress Fang [r. 1534-1547]

Confucius [551-479 BCE]

Minister Xia Yan

Minister Huo Tao


Major Sources Cited:

Works Cited:

Geiss, James. “The Chia-ching reign, 1522-1566,” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: the Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I.

Huang, Weibo. “The palace rebellion of ‘Renyin’ and the Jiajing Emperor’s belief in alchemy” in Xiang Chao.

McMahon, Keith. Celestial Women: Imperial Wives and Concubines in China from Song to Qing.

Zhang, Tingyu. History of Ming, Vol. 114, Historical Biography 2, Empresses and Concubines 2.

Zhang, Yongchang. “The ‘Renyin’ palace rebellion: palace women sacrifice themselves” in Quanzhou Wenxue.



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From The History of China at 2022-07-31 16:26:04

#238 - Yuan 19.1: She-Wolf & Cub (media.mp3)

ca. 1470-1480 CE


Under the tutelage of his queen Mandukhai, Dayan Khan grows from helpless boy to leader of men, learning along the way that vengeance is a dish best served cold.


Part 1 of 2 (whole version available at https://www.patreon.com/thehistoryofchina):



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From The History of China at 2022-06-16 11:44:20

Special: A Song of Yiti & China - The History of Westeros/History of China Mash-up! (media.mp3)

Aziz, Ashaya, Sean, and myself have a ball discussing all the things GRRM took - and didn't - from Chinese history when he "created" the mysterious empire of Yi-Ti!

I had an absolute ball, and I hope you will, too!!



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From The History of China at 2022-06-03 16:24:12

Rebroadcast: 6/4: UK Cable on Tiananmen Square Massacre (media.mp3)

It isn't over, not really


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From The History of China at 2022-06-03 13:47:43

#235 - Ming 25: Some Light Treason (media.mp3)

Great Ming is having some problems with its border troops who think orders are actually "suggestions." The Jiajing Emperor is having some problems with his ministers being self-serving twits. Meanwhile, there's some strange happenings going on beyond the wild frontiers...


Time Period Covered:

~1510-1540 CE



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From The History of China at 2022-03-31 17:39:11

#232.5 (185 Mk. 2): Back to the Medicine Shoppe (De Materia Medica Rebroadcast+ 2022 Update)) (media.mp3)

A new update with all the new craziness 2 years on before we once again step into Ye Olde Chinese Medicine Shoppe for the tour...


Traditional Chinese Medicine – as its name duly implies – has been a part of China for at least 2,500 years. But what does it mean? Where does it come from? How does it work? And does it have a place it modern society?



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From The History of China at 2022-03-09 16:56:57

#232 - Ming 21: Animal House (media.mp3)

The Zhengde Emperor decides that being the divine sovereign is *boring* and that being a cool war-hero would be way cooler... and... it goes weirdly better than expected. Also, he gives himself a cool nickname, and makes everyone call him that.


Time Period Covered:

1510-1518 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Zhengde Emperor (Zhu Houzhao) [r. 1505-1521]

Jiang Bin

Qian Ning

Liu Yun, Eunuch Commander

General Zhu Shou, Heroic Defender of the Realm [?? -??]


Tibet

The Prince of Rin-Sprungs [r. 1512-1544]


Mongols:

Dayan Khan (Batu Möngke) [r. 1479-1517]



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From The History of China at 2022-02-21 17:21:53

#231 - Ming 20: Liu Jin & the Eight Tigers (media.mp3)

The adolescent Zhengde Emperor sits the throne, but everyone in the know knows that it is the eunuch-lord Liu Jin who truly controls Great Ming. Not everyone's exactly thrilled with this situation, and they're gonna get Liu Jin got... or die trying.


Time Period Covered:

1506-1510 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Zhengde Emperor (Zhu Houzhao) [r. 1506-1521]

Liu Jin, Director of the Ceremonial [1451-1510]

The Prince of Anhua (Zhu Zhifan) [d. 1510]

Commander Qiu Yue

General Yan Yiqing

Inspector-in-Chief Zhang Yong


Major Works Cited:

Bourgon, Jérôme, Muriel Detrie, & Regis Poulet."Execution in Canton" in Chinese Torture – Supplices Chinois.

Brook, Timothy. The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties.

Geiss, James. “The Cheng-te reign, 1506-1521” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I.”

Meadows, Thomas Taylor. The Chinese and Their Rebellions




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From The History of China at 2022-01-31 16:27:22

#230 - Ming 19: A Futile & Stupid Barrier (media.mp3)

Happy Year of the Tiger!

Great Ming decides that it's going to (re-)(re-)Build a Great, Great, Great Wall...and MAKE THE MONGOLS PAY FOR IT!*


(*claim disputed by Mongolia)


Major Work Cited:

Fairbanks, John King. China: A New History, 2nd Edition.

Mote, Frederick W. “The Ch’eng-hua and Hung-chih Reigns, 1465-1505” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, Part I.

Waldron, Arthur. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth.




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From The History of China at 2022-01-05 17:54:56

#229 - Ming 18: The Raven Himself Is Hoarse (media.mp3)

After a very rocky start in life, the Chenghua Emperor takes the throne, only to be endlessly shoved around by overbearing mother, manipulative and murderous consorts, and conniving, terrorizing eunuchs. What else would one really expect for a guy with the personality of a west dishrag?


Time Period Covered:

1464-1487 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Chenghua Emperor (Zhu Jianshen) [r. 1464-1487]

The Hongzhi Emperor (Zhu Youcheng) [1470-1505]

Noble Consort Wan Zheng'er [1430-1487]

Empress Wang

Empress Wu

Empress Dowager Zhou

Empress Dowager Qian

Grand Secretary Li Xian

Lady Zhi Tangmei

Eunuch Zhang Min

Spymaster Wang Zhi


Notable Works Cited:

Mote, Frederick W. “The Ch’eng-hua and Hung-chih Reigns, 1465-1505” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, Part I.

Li Shizhen. Bencao Ganmu (The Compendium of Materia Medica)

Tsai, Shi-shan Henry. The Eunuchs of the Ming Dynasty.




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From The History of China at 2021-12-20 15:32:20

#228 - Special: 8th Anniversary Q&A (media.mp3)

What the only thing better than 8 years on the podwaves? 8 years & 10,000,000 downloads, THAT'S WHAT!!


In this episode we talk about what the definition of "is" is, Zen masters, *yet more farming history!,* when I plan to shut up, me reading poetry in Mandarin... & then the same poem in *reconstructed Old Chinese from 2k+ yrs ago*, and divination, which includes Nazis, Princess Mononoke, pigs & fish, and fictions within fictions with fictions at the heart of the truth!



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From The History of China at 2021-11-28 06:54:06

#227 - Ming 17: The Cao Qin Rebellion (media.mp3)

Emperor Yingzong is back on his throne thanks to the conspirators loyal to him. Only they turn out to be not so much loyal to "him," as they are to the idea that they should have more and more power. It all culminates with yet another coup d'etat..真讨厌...


Time Period Covered:

1457-1464 CE


Major Historical Figures:

Emperor Yingzong (Zhu Qizhen) [r. 1435-1449, 1457-1464]

Crown Prince Zhu Jianshen [b. 1448]

Yu Qian, Minister of War [d. 1457]

Xu Yuzhen, Earl of Wugong [?]

Shi Heng, Duke of Zhongguo [d. 1459]

Cao Zhixiang, Director of Ceremonies [d. 1461]

Grand Secretary Li Xian

Imperial Guard Commander Lu Gao [d. 1461]

General Cao Qin [d. 1461]

General Shi Biao [?]

General Sun Tang

General Ma Ang

General Wu Jin

General Wu Cong

Commander Ma Liang

Commissioner Wanzhe Tuliang

Vice Commissioner-in-Chief Esen Temur


Works Cited:

Qi, Dongfang. “Funerary Perception and Ritual Institution of Imperial Tang” in Kaogu Xuebao (tr. Lee Yun-kuen).

Robinson, David M. “Politics, Force and Ethnicity in Ming China: Mongols and the Abortive Coup of 1461” in The Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 59, No. 1.

Stutton, Donald S. “Death Rites and Chinese Culture: Standardization and Variation in Ming and Qing Times” in Modern China, Vol. 33, No. 1.

Twitchett, Denis & Tilemann Grimm. "The Cheng-t'ung, Ching-t'ai, and T'ien-shun reigns, 1436-1464" in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I.

Waldron, Arthur. The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth.




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From The History of China at 2021-11-06 16:24:44

#226 – Ming 16: Forcing the Palace Gate (media.mp3)

Following the events at the Tumu Fort, Emperor Yingzong takes an unscheduled sabbatical in Mongolia, the Mongol warlord Esen Taishi attempts to return something lost for a price, Beijing battens down the hatches in preparation for Genghis Khan come anew, and brotherly love reaches its breaking point.


Time Period Covered:

1449-1457 CE


Major Historical Figures:

Ming Dynasty:

Zhu Qizhen (Emperor Yingzong) [r. Zhengtong Era: 1435-1449, Tianshun Era: 1457-1464]

Zhu Qiyu (the Jingtai Emperor) [r. 1449-1457]

Crown Prince Zhu Jianshen [b. 1447]

Crown Prince Zhu Jianzhi [1448-1453]

Minister Xu Yuzhen

Xing An, Head Imperial Eunuch

Yu Qian, Minister of War [1398-1457]


Northern Yuan/Oirat Mongols:

Esen Taishi [1407-1455, (r. as Khaghan of N. Yuan, 1453-1455)]

Toghto Bukha (Taisun Khaghan) [r. 1433-1453]

Xi Ning, turncoat eunuch [d. 1450]




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From The History of China at 2021-10-19 12:31:40

#225 - Special - Strange Tales VI: Notes From the Shadow Book (media.mp3)

Our annual creepy charcuterie of 4 strange stories from all across Qing China, collected by Ji Yun from Beijing all the way to Urumqi.


Today, we have 4 tales to send shivers down your spine:

1) "Professional Notes on the Jiangshi & Other Revenants" (begins @ 2:50)

2) "Checkpoints" (begins @ 19:44)

3) "Yeti Stones" (begins @ 28:43)

4) "Visitors From Beyond" (begins @ 34:37)



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From The History of China at 2021-10-10 04:25:08

# 225.2 - Special - Strange Tales VI.2: The Thing On the Doorstep (media.mp3)

"There are black zones of shadow close to our daily paths, and now and then some evil soul breaks a passage through. When that happens, the man who knows must strike before reckoning the consequences."


By: H.P. Lovecraft

Read By: Chris Stewart



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From The History of China at 2021-10-05 13:12:17

#225.1 - Special - Strange Tales VI.1: Nyarlathotep (media.mp3)

Nyarlathotep . . . the crawling chaos . . . I am the last . . . I will tell the audient void. . . .


Written By: H.P. Lovecraft

Read By: Chris Stewart



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From The History of China at 2021-10-01 13:32:07

#224 - Ming 15: The Tumu Fiasco (media.mp3)

A child sits the throne of Great Ming, which goes surprisingly alright… at least for a while. But when the old guard of the imperial regency starts dying off, a combination of naive youthful exuberance and pure political ambition from the power behind the throne will throw everything into chaos on the plains north of Beijing.


Time Period Covered:

1435-1449 CE


Major Historical Figures:

Great Ming:

Zhu Qizhen (Emperor Yingzong, the Zhengtong/Tianshun Emperor) [r. 1335-1449, 1457-1464]

Grand Empress Dowager Chen [d. 1442]

Wang Zhen, Eunuch Lord [d. 1449]


Mongol Tribes:

Esen, Taishi of the Oirat [d. 1455]



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From The History of China at 2021-09-05 13:33:34

#223 - Ming 14: Maybe The Real Treasure Was The Friends We Made Along The Way (media.mp3)

While dying emperors, shifting policies, and vindictive princes keep the capital busy, Admiral Zheng He will manage to sneak in on last joy-ride into the sunset aboard his beloved Treasure Fleet...


Time Period Covered:

1424-1435 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Hongxi Emperor (Zhu Gaochi) [r. 1424-1425]

The Xuande Emperor (Zhu Zhanji) [r. 1425-1435]

Zhu Gaoxu, the Prince of Han [1380-1426]

Zhu Gaosui, the Prince of Zhao [1383-1431]

Grand Admiral Zheng He [1371-1433]



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From The History of China at 2021-08-21 06:17:14

#222 - Ming 13: Trouble In Paradise (media.mp3)

Zheng He's Treasure Fleet finally arrives on the African coast, and the Yongle Emperor celebrates the apex of his reign with the grand opening of Beijing and the Forbidden City. But dark clouds continue to build, but in the emperor's aged, troubled mind, and literally on the horizon... a storm is coming...


Time Period Covered:

1416-1424 CE


Major Historical Figures:

The Yongle Emperor (Zhu Di) [r. 1402-1424]

The Noble Consort Zhaoxian, née Wang [d. ca. 1420]

Grand Admiral Zheng He [1371-1435]


Mirza Sharukh, Sultan of the Timurid Dynasty [r. 1405-1447]


Major Works Cited:

Chan, Hok-lam. “The Yung-lo reign” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Pt. I.

Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405-1433.

Levathes, Louise. When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433.



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From The History of China at 2021-07-30 18:23:26

#221 -Mongol 18: Goliath's Fall (1097181781-the-history-of-china-221-mongol-18-goliaths-fall.mp3)

Having laid waste to the once glorious city of Baghdad, Hulegu Ilkhan now sets his sights east of the Euphrates, to the fertile lands of Syria and Egypt beyond. But what's to follow will set of a momentous clash in Galilee, at a spring called Ain Jalut, that will shake the very fundaments of history... Time Period Covered: 1258-1260 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Mongke Khaghan Khubilai Ilkhan Ariq Boke Ilkhanate: Hulegu Ilkhan General Baiju General Kitbuqa [d. 1260] Ayyubid Dynasty: al-Muzzam Turanshah al-Malik al-Nasir Yusuf al-Aziz al-Zayn al-Hafizi Mamluks: Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baybars al Bunduqdari, "The Great Lord Panther" European Christendom: King Louis IX of France Bohemond V of Antioch Bohemond VI of Antioch King Hethum I of Cilicia Major Sources Cited: Amitai, Reuven. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk Ilkhanate War, 1260-1281. Amitai, Reuven. “An Exchange of Letters in Arabic Between Abakha Ilkhan and Sultan Baybars (A.H. 667/A.D. 1268-69)” in Central Asiatic Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1. Gillespie, Alexander. Causes of War, Volume II: 1000 CE to 1400 CE. Grousset, René. Empire of the Steppes: A history of Central Asia. Subani, Hamad. The Secret History of Iran. Richard, Jean. The Crusades, C.1071-1291. Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Tschanz, David W. “History’s Hinge: ‘Ain Jalut” in Saudi Aramco World.

From The History of China at 2021-07-12 17:17:03

220 - Ming 12: Fantastic Beasts & Where to Gift Them (1086165571-the-history-of-china-220-ming-12-fantastic-beasts-where-to-gift-them.mp3)

The treasure Fleet goes on missions 2-4, resulting in increasingly strange, valuable, and even divine gifts being presented to Great Ming. Time Period Covered: 1407-1415 CE Major Historical Figures Ming: Yongle Emperor (Zhu Di) [r. 1402-1424] Admiral Zheng He [1371-1435] Commodore Yang Min Ma Huan, translator & chronicler [1380-1460] Kingdom of Malacca: King Parameswara [r. 1402-1414] Major Works Cited: Chan, Hok-lam. “The Yung-lo reign” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Pt. I. Dreyer, Edward L. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405-1433. Levathes, Louise. When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. “Kéramos” in Keramos and Other Poems: A Book of Sonnets, Part II. U.N. Museum. “Nanjing pagoda – Seven wonders of the medieval world.” www.unmuseum.org

From The History of China at 2021-06-26 06:13:43

#219 - Intelligent Speech 2021: Escaping the Mongols (Or at Least Trying!) (media.mp3)

A live retelling (wart & all) of Genghis Khan's invasion of Khwarazmia ca. 1221, and the doomed flight of all who stood against his wrath... followed by a Q&A. From the 2021 Intelligent Speech Conference!  


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From The History of China at 2021-06-22 14:48:38

The Sea Shanty of Zheng He (media.mp3)

There once was a fleet that put to sea All in name of the Imperial Ming With phoenix sterns, & dragon prows Oh go, my baochuan, go! Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go Commanded by an admiral So tall he seem unnatural His voice rang out like temple bell To get those treasures stowed Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go They sailed the southern seas so vast They’d catch the wind with all nine masts Astrologers would watch the skies From Champa to Guangzhou Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go But on wave-crest a Pirate Lord He spied the fleet and greedily roared “Make ready all your cannon shot, We’ll take all their cargo!” Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go Through flame and smoke they battled on Til in a flash a month was gone The Pirate Lord would taste defeat His ships sunk deep below Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go At last they came to Indian shores In search of spice and jewels and more The deal was struck, with solemn vow To pay all that was owed Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go But homeward bound the skies grew dim The winds did howl, their fate seemed grim The sailors prayed, “Help us, Tianfei!” The masts began to glow Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go The Goddess heard their earnest pleas She stilled the waves & calmed the breeze The sailors gave their sober thanks She’s spared them from their woe Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go Soon may the Treasure Fleet moor To bring ceramics & silk galore One day, when the trading is done They’ll take our spice & go  


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From The History of China at 2021-06-15 17:57:47

#218 - Ming 11: Soon May the Treasure Fleet Come (media.mp3)

Zheng He & Co. have left the station and are sailing out! They leave the safety of the Yangtze River and set their compasses southbound and down, first to Fujian, then to Vietnam, Java, Sri Lanka, and finally all the way to India, all in the name of trade and riches. But the return journey will turn out to be anything but a pleasure-cruise. Between pirate raiders adn deadly storms, they might need a miracle to pull this off... Time Period Covered: 1405-1407 CE Major Historical Figures: Grand Admiral Zheng He [1371-1433/5] Chen Zuyi, Pirate Lord Extraordinaire [d. 1407] Ma Huan, Chinese Muslim translator & chronicler [1380-1460] Major Sources Cited: Chan, Hok-lam. “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-xi, Hsüan-te Reigns” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I. Levathes, Louise. When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433. Pregadio, Fabrizio (2004). The Encyclopedia of Taoism.  


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From The History of China at 2021-06-03 14:29:16

05/35: Tiananmen Revisited (media.mp3)

What does the aftermath of a massacre entail, on the world stage? CIA Memo 6/10/89 - Begins: 2:25 US Beijing Embassy Cable 7/11/89 - Begins: 6:05  


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From The History of China at 2021-06-03 14:21:21

Rebroadcast: 6/4 UK Cable on the Tiananmen Square Massacre (media.mp3)

In this darkest of timelines, flickers of remembrance are more precious than ever...  


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From The History of China at 2021-05-31 18:12:31

#217 - Ming 10: I'm On A Boat! (media.mp3)

The Yongle Emperor decides it's time for Great Ming to bust out its swim trunks and its flippy-floppies... because he's going to make the biggest, bestest oceanic fleet of awesomesauce that the world has ever seen! And put in command is his trusted, tried-and-true battle-buddy: the Grand Admiral Zheng He! Time Period Covered: 1371-1405 CE Significant Historical Figures: The Yongle Emperor (Zhu Di) [r. 1402-1424] Grand Admiral Zheng He (né Ma He) [1371-1433] Tianfei, the Goddess of the Sea and Patron Protector of Sailors [eternal] Sources Cited: Chan, Hok-lam. “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-xi, Hsüan-te Reigns” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part I. Levathes, Louise. The China Ruled the Seas:The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433. Paterson, Erik T. “James Lind, Zheng He and the Prevention of Scurvy” in The Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 4.  


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From The History of China at 2021-05-23 13:20:20

#216.2 - Special: Wonders of the World Interview, Pt. 2 - The Forbidden City (media.mp3)

We're back with Part 2 of my conversation with Caroline Vahrenkamp of The Wonders of the World Podcast, this tie all about the little city that Yongle built mostly to show his dead dad up - Beijing, and at its heart, the city-within-the-city, the Imperial Purple Palace - The Forbidden City!  


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From The History of China at 2021-05-17 13:29:02

#216 - Special: Interview with Caroline Vahrenkamp of The Wonders of the World Podcast, Pt. 1 (media.mp3)

Part 1 of my interview with Caroline Vahrenkamp of "The Wonders of the World Podcast" all about Beijing and it's meteoric rise as (the once and future) capital of China in the early Ming Dynasty!  


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From The History of China at 2021-05-09 10:46:54

#215 - Ming 9: The Good Times Are Killing Me (media.mp3)

The Yongle Emperor decides to build a new capital. It goes well! He also decides to invade both Mongolia and Vietnam. It goes not so well. Time Period: 1402-1424 CE Major Historical Figures: Ming: The Yongle Emperor (Zhu Di) [r. 1402-1424] General Zhang Fu [1375-1449] Gen. Mu Sheng [1368-1439] Mongol Khanates: Bunyashiri of the Eastern Tribes [d. 1412] Mahmud of the Oirat [d. 1416] Arughtai of the Oirat [d. 1434] Dai Viet: Ho Qui Ly [1336- ca. 1407] Tran Thien-binh [d. 1406] Tran Nguy [?-?] Tran Qui-khoang (Trung Quang Emperor) [d. 1414] Le Loi [1384-1433]  


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From The History of China at 2021-04-17 10:52:44

#214 - History's Most: "History's Worst Civil War," with Alexander Clifford & Peter Daisley (media.mp3)

A great conversation with Alex & Peter of "History's Most" about the worst civil war many have *still* never heard of - the Taiping Rebellion! Check out their great show at: https://historysmost.libsyn.com/  


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From The History of China at 2021-04-11 17:22:29

#213 - Ming 8: Oh, Happy Days! (media.mp3)

The Yongle Emperor has taken command... and we're in for a really, really, really great time.... Time Period Covered: 1402-1424 CE  


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From The History of China at 2021-03-21 09:20:13

#212 - Ming 7: The Incredible Vanishing Emperor! (media.mp3)

The civil war between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle, the Prince of Yan, rages on across the realm. Both sides will feel the terror and pain of the fearsome realities combat... but in the end, only one will be left standing. Time Period Covered: 1399-1402 CE Major Historical Figures: The Jianwen Emperor (Zhu Yunwen) [r. 1398-1402] Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan [1360-1424] Minister Huang Zicheng [1350-1402] Minister Qi Tai [d. 1402] Minister Fang Xiaoru [1357-1402] General Geng Bingwen [1334-1403] General Li Jinglong [1369-1424] Major Works Cited: Andrade, Tonio. “How Yongle learned to stop worrying and love the gun” in The Ming World. Chan, Hok-lam. “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te Reigns, 1399-1435” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1633, Part I. Ditmanson, Peter. “Venerating the Martyrs of the 1402 Usurpation: History and Memory in the Mid and late Ming Dynasty” in T’oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 93. Ditmanson, Peter. “Fang Xiaoru: Moralistic Politics in the Early Ming” in The Human Tradition in Premodern China.  


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From The History of China at 2021-03-17 04:54:17

#211 - Ming 6: The Jingnan Rebellion (media.mp3)

In the wake of the Hongwu Emperor's death, his grandson - Zhu Yunwen - will assume command. He's been brought up and trained in the highest of Confucian ethics and morals, and will seek to curb the excesses of his dear grandfather's... more bloodthirsty policies. But not everyone is thrilled at the new leaf being turned in the book of the regime... especially those who stand to lose much more than they could possibly gain. Time Period Covered: 1398-1399 CE Major Historical Figures: The Jianwen Emperor (Zhu Yunwen) [r. 1398-1402] Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan [1360-1424] Minister Huang Zicheng [1350-1402] Minister Qi Tai [d. 1402] Minister Fang Xiaoru [1357-1402] General Geng Bingwen [1334-1403] General Li Jinglong [1369-1424] Major Works Cited: Andrade, Tonio. “How Yongle learned to stop worrying and love the gun” in The Ming World. Chan, Hok-lam. “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te Reigns, 1399-1435” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1633, Part I. Ditmanson, Peter. “Venerating the Martyrs of the 1402 Usurpation: History and Memory in the Mid and late Ming Dynasty” in T’oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 93. Ditmanson, Peter. “Fang Xiaoru: Moralistic Politics in the Early Ming” in The Human Tradition in Premodern China.  


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From The History of China at 2021-03-01 13:45:18

#210 - Ming 5: The Problem With Princes (media.mp3)

The Hongwu Emperor enters the twilight of his life. But before he's ready to ride off into that long sunset, he's going to take a hell of a lot more people with him... Time Period: 1387-1398 CE Major Historical FIgures: The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) [r. 1368-1398] Crown Prince Zhu Biao [1355-1392] Crown Prince Zhu Yunwen (The Jianwen Emperor) [1377-1402] Zhu Shuang, the Prince of Qin [1356-1395] Zhu Gang, the Prince of Jin [1358-1398] Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan [1360-1424] Zhu Su, the Prince of Zhou [1361-1425] General Fu Youde [1327-1394] General Feng Sheng [d. 1395] Major Sources: Langlois, John D., Jr. “The Hung-Wu-Reign” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 13698-1644m Part I. Robinson, David M. In the Shadow of the Mongol Empire: Ming China and Eurasia. Sun, Bing. “The burial system of imperial concubines in the Ming Dynasty and the ‘ancestral system’ of the Ming Dynasty.”  


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From The History of China at 2021-02-12 04:26:38

#209-Mongol 17.1: Rivers of Ink & Blood (media.mp3)

(NOTE: This is Pt. 1 or 2. The Full Episode & all other bonus content is available via Patreon.com/thehistoryofchina) Mongke has ascended as the Great Khan of the Mongols and set loose his younger brother, Hulegu Ilkhan to bring the Islamic world to heel. The Caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty, al-Mustasim, sits ensconced in his citadel city of Baghdad - the jewel of Islam - and believes that Allah above and his loyal subjects beneath will be more than a match for barbarian hordes. He's about to learn a lesson neither he - nor the world - will ever forget... Time Period Covered: 1258-1259 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Hülegü Ilkhan [ca. 1215-1265] General Kitbukha [d. 1260] General Baiju [1201-1260] Abbasid Caliphate: al-Musta’sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir  Billah, 37th Caliph [1213-1258] Governor Shahab al Din Sulaiman shah [d. 1258] Vizier Ibn al Alkami [1197-1258] Major Sources Cited: Al-Din, Rashid. Jami al Tararikh (Compendium of Histories). Al-Din, Rashid (tr. John Andrew Boyle). The Successors of Genghis Khan. Chugtai, Mizra Azeem Baig. “The Fall of Baghdad” in The Annal of Urdu Studies. Daftary, Farhad. The Isma’ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Hillenbrand, Robert. “Propaganda in the Mongol ‘World History’” in British Academy Review, issue 17 (March 2011). Hodgson, M. G. S. “The Isma’ili State” in The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Jamal, Nadia Eboo. Surviving the Mongols: Nizari Quhistani and the Continuity of Ismaili Tradition in Persia. Marozzi, Justin. Baghdad: City of Peace, City of Blood. Paris, Matthew of (tr. John Allen Giles). Chronica Majora (Matthew Paris’s English History From the Year 1235 to 1273, Volume 1). Saunders, J.J. The History of the Mongol Conquests. van Ruysbroeck, Willem (tr. W. W. Rockhill & Peter Jackson). The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, 1253-55, as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian del Carpine. Wiet, Gaston. Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate.  


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From The History of China at 2021-02-01 08:10:14

#208 - Ming 4: To Pick at the Dragon's Scales (media.mp3)

To both the north and south, the armies of Great Ming continue to achieve order from chaos and stability across the realm, in the imperial palace at Nanjing, the Hongwu Emperor sits the Dragon Throne - as mercurial and temperamental as its very namesake... and woe betide anyone who stokes the dragon's wrath. Still, in the name of greater peace (and fewer mass slaughters), many a brave (and often fatally foolish)scholar will tempt fate by trying to tell Hongwu what he's doing wrong. Time Period Covered: 1379-1389 CE Major Historical Figures: Ming: The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) [r.1368-1398] Duke Li Wenzhong [d. 1384] General Fu Youde [d. 1394] General Feng Sheng [?] General Lan Yu [d. 1393] General Mu Ying [d. 1392] Scholar Chen Wenhui [d. 1381] Scholar Li Shilu [d. 1381] Scholar Xie Jin [1369-1415] Yuan/Yunnanese: Toghus Temür Khan [d. 1388] Basalawarmi, the Prince of Liang [d. 1382] General Naghachu [d. 1388] Si Lunfa, Chieftain of Shan [d. 1386?] Major Works Cited: Crossley, Pamela Kyle, et al. Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity and Frontier in Early Modern China. Dillon, Michael. China’s Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlements and Sects. Langlois, John D., Jr. “The Hung-Wu-Reign” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 13698-1644m Part I. Tsai, Shi-shan Henry. The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty.g.  


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From The History of China at 2021-01-12 13:44:09

#207 - Mongol 16: Assassin's Creed (media.mp3)

Following the destruction of the Khwarazmian Empire in 1221, the Mongol Empire's appetite for conquest to the west is whetted. It will take a few Great Khans to kick it off, but with the accession of Möngke to the throne in 1251, the way will be laid bare - to be led by his brother Hülegü Khan. The only thing standing between him and the beating heart of Islam is a ragged band of heretics scattered across the mountain fortresses of northern Persia - a group known as the Nizari Isma'ili... or more infamously: the Assassins. Time Period Covered: 765-1257 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Möngke Khaghan [r. 1251-1259] Hülegü Ilkhan [r. 1251-1265] General Ket-Buqa (Noyan) [d. 1260] Nizari Isma'ili: Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq [702-765] Hassan-i Sabbah [1050-1124] Imam Jalal al-Din Hassan [1187-1221] Imam Ala al-Din Muhammad III [1211-1255] Imam Rukn al-Din Khurshah [1230-1256] Other: Brother Matthew of Paris [1200-1259] Friar William of Rubruck [1220-1293] Ata-Malik Juvayni [1226-1283] Rashid al-Din Hamadani [1247-1318] Major Sources Cited: Al-Din, Rashid (tr. John Andrew Boyle). The Successors of Genghis Khan. Daftary, Farhad. The Isma’ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Hillenbrand, Robert. “Propaganda in the Mongol ‘World History’” in British Academy Review, issue 17 (March 2011). Hodgson, M. G. S. “The Isma’ili State” in The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Jamal, Nadia Eboo. Surviving the Mongols: Nizari Quhistani and the Continuity of Ismaili Tradition in Persia. Marozzi, Justin. Baghdad: City of Peace, City of Blood. Paris, Matthew of (tr. John Allen Giles). Chronica Majora (Matthew Paris’s English History From the Year 1235 to 1273, Volume 1). Saunders, J.J. The History of the Mongol Conquests. van Ruysbroeck, Willem (tr. W. W. Rockhill & Peter Jackson). The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, 1253-55, as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian del Carpine.  


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From The History of China at 2020-12-26 03:45:07

#206 - Ming 3: I Think I'm Paranoid (media.mp3)

The founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, the Hongwu Emperor... has got a bit of a trust problem. It starts with him getting upset that his officials are "cutting corners" when it comes to official counts of tribute payments & the stamped documents verifying them. But it quickly spirals into full-blown paranoia that absolutely everyone is out to get them, and the only was he knows how to confront this problem is by getting all of his "enemies" first. Time Period Covered: ca. 1373-1382 CE Major Historical Figures: The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) [r. 1368-1398] Crown Prince Zhu Biao [1355-1392] Zhu Shuang, Prince Min of Qin [1356-1395] Zhu Gang, Prince Gong of Jin [1358-1398] Zhu Di, Prince of Yan [1360-1424] Chancellor Hu Weiyong [d. 1380] Gao Qi [1334-1374] Prefect Ye Boju [d. 1376] Academician Zheng Shili [d. 1376] Sources Cited: Brook, Timothy. The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Langlois, John D., Jr. “The Hung-Wu-Reign” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 13698-1644m Part I. Laozi. Dao De Jing. Luo, Yuming. A Concise History of Chinese Literature. Strassberg, Richard E. Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China.  


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From The History of China at 2020-12-13 08:37:19

#205 - Hangzhou: A City by the Bay (media.mp3)

You might not be able to go on a real holiday - but today we take a little audio trip to the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang... famed across the millennia for its beautiful bay, canals, and the famous West Lake. This is no ordinary tourist get-away, though, because we'll be skipping across time, looking at the highlights of its early history. Time Period Covered: ca. 5,000 BCE- ca. 960 CE Major Sources: Cotterell, Arthur. The Imperial Capitals of China – An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. Giles, Lionel (tr.) Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. Loewe, Michael and Edward L. Shaughnessey. The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Mote, F.W. Imperial China.(900-1800). Rossabi, Morris. China Among Equals: the Middle Kingdom and its Neighbors, 10th-14th centuries. Schmidt, J. D. Within the Human Realm: The Poetry of Huang Zunxian, 1848-1905. Yan, Zi. Famous Temples in China.  


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From The History of China at 2020-11-29 09:55:38

#204 - Ming 2: Winning Was Easy, Young Ming, Governing Is Harder (media.mp3)

The Hongwu Emperor officially accedes to the throne as the founding ruler of Great Ming, to as much pomp and circumstance as his ministers can possibly pack in to the ceremony. After the parties are all done and the sacrifices all made, however, the real work of governing an empire that has been ravaged for centuries begins… and not everyone is happy about having a new sovereign sitting atop the dragon throne. Time Period Covered: 1367-1373 CE Major Historical Figures: Great Ming: The Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) [r. 1368-1398] Empress Xiaocigao (née Ma Xuying) [1332-1382] Zhu Biao, Crown Prince [1355-1392] Zhu Shuang, Prince of Qin [1356-1395] Zhu Gang, Prince of Jin [1358-1398] Zhu Di, Prince of Yan [1360-1424] Tao Kai, Minister of Rites General Xu Da [1332-1385] General Deng Yu General Fu Youde [1327-1394] Ambassador Zhao Zhi Xia Kingdom (Sichuan): Emperor Ming Yuzhen [r. 1360-1366] Emperor Ming Sheng [r. 1366-1371] Nanchō Japan: Prince Kaneyoshi, the Chinzei Shogun [c. 1329-1383] Monk Sorai Major Works Cited: Chan, Hok-Lam. “Ming Taizu’s Problem With his Sons: Prince Qin’s Criminality and Early Ming Politics” in Asia Major, Third Series, Vol. 20, No. 1 (2007). Langlois, John D. “The Hung-wu Reign” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1.  


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From The History of China at 2020-11-12 08:04:26

#203 - Yuan 16: The White Hare's Curse (media.mp3)

"The list of their disasters was much lengthened [...] and whenever they tried to force a way into the borders of the empire, they were beaten back. They were once more confined to the great desert, whence they originally sprang.” “Although I am a woman, I have avenged the vengeance of my husband. When I die, there will be no regret.” Time Period Covered: 1368~1399 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan/ Northern Yuan: Toghon Temür (Emperor Shun) [r. 1333-1368, 1368-1369] Ayurshiridara (Biligtü Khan) [r. 1370-1378] Prince Maidiribala [1338-1378] General Köke Temür [1330-1375] Elbeg Khan [r. 1393-1399] Oljeitu Khatun [d. ~1399] Ming: Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) [r. 1368-1399] Xu Da, "Barbarian-Conquering Generalissimo" [1332-1385] General Li Wenzhong [1339-1383]  


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From The History of China at 2020-10-23 12:53:14

#202.5 - Bonus: Strange Tales V.5: The Masque of the Red Death (media.mp3)

You are invited to a very exclusive party. Everyone who's anyone will be there, dressed to the nines. You're sure to have the time of your life, and won't even know where the time's gone... Story by: Edgar Allen Poe  


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From The History of China at 2020-10-17 14:10:51

#202 - Special: Strange Tales V (media.mp3)

The chill of autumn is in the air once again, which can only mean one thing! It’s time for more tales to terrorize & titillate, baffle & bemuse… it’s time to once again venture into the studio of Pu Songling and listen to his strange tales. So gather round the light of the fire… or the iPhone… and get ready for seven strange stories of sly foxes, flights of fancy, monstrous appetites, unusual encounters, otherworldly lessons, tricky traders, and enchanting apparitions... 00:58: The Half-Fox Girl 10:55: The Painted Wall 18:27: The Monster In the Buckwheat 21:48: The Girl From Nanjing 25:45: A Most Exemplary Monk 28:07: Stealing a Peach 33:38: The Hungry Bride 36:07: The Magic Sword & the Magic Bag  


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From The History of China at 2020-10-06 06:20:28

#201 - Ming 1: Overflowing Martial Accomplishment (media.mp3)

How does a peasant, orphan, son of a farmer in the Black Death, made a monk in the middle of a forgotten spot In central Anhui by providence impoverished In squalor, grow up to be a rebel hero, then a monarch? Time Period Covered: 1364-1368 CE Major Historical Figures: Ming: Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) [r. 1368-1398] General Xu Da [1332-1385] General Chang Yuchun [1330-1369] Commander Li Wenzhong [1338-1384] Yuan: Emperor Toghon Temür [r. 1333-1368, 1368-1370] Crown Prince Ayushiridara [1340-1378] General Chaghan Temür [d. 1362] General Köke Temür [1330-1375] General Bolod Temür [d. 1364] Wu: Zhang Shicheng (King of Dazhou) [r. 1354-1367] General Li Bosheng  


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From The History of China at 2020-09-20 08:48:46

#200 - Special: Di Er Bai Ji! (media.mp3)

It's our 200th(ish) episode! And so we take to the listeners to answer some of their burning questions about... Daoist gods... Islam in China... The Mandate of Heaven... sacrifices! ... the political expedience of murdering Mongol ambassadors... The Duke ... the names of emperors... technology transfers ... Korean empresses... and more!  


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From The History of China at 2020-08-30 17:40:25

#199 - Yuan 15: On the Waterfront (media.mp3)

You don't understand! Chen Youliang coulda had class! He coulda been a contender! He coulda been somebody... instead of a bum, which is what he is after the fiasco on the waters of Lake Poyang. Let's face it. Time Period Covered: 1360-1363 CE Major Historical Figures: State of Ming: Zhu Yuanzhang Commander Hua Yun [d. 1360] Han Lin'er, "Emperor of Song" General Kang Maocai General Xu Da General Hu Dahai [d. 1361] General Shao Rong [d. 1361] State of Han: Emperor Chen Youliang [r. 1360-1363] General Chen Yuren Xu Shouhui, "Emperor" of Tianwan [d. 1360] State of Wu: Zhang Shicheng Yuan Dynasty: Emperor Toghon Temur Prince Chaghan Temur [d. 1361] Köke Temur (Wang Baobao)  


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From The History of China at 2020-08-12 11:28:46

#198 - Mongol 15.1: The Toluid Revolution (media.mp3)

When Ögedei dies in late 1241, the empire must choose a successor before it can move forward. In spite of the late Khan determining in advance that it should be his grandson, his empress has other ideas - namely, installing her own irascible son, Güyük, instead. This raises more than a few eyebrows, especially from the Lord of the Golden Horde (and Güyük's personal nemesis) Batu Khan. He'll spend then next 5 years doing absolutely everything in his power to prevent Güyüks' enthronement. And so, when Güyük is finally installed... is it any surprise that he'll seek to get even on his hated cousin? Their looking showdown on the fields of Dzungaria will set the stage for a truly unpredictable series of events, that will leave the Mongol Empire altered forever... (NOTE: This is Part 1 of a Bonus Episode! Get the rest, and all other bonus content by subscribing via patreon.com/thehistoryofchina Time Period Covered: 1242-1254 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Temuge Otchigin, Genghis Khan's youngest brother, Prince of the Hearth [1168-1246] House Ögedei: *Ögedei Khaghan [r. 1232-1241] Toregene Khatun [r. 1242-1246] Güyük Khaghan [r. 1246-1248] Oghul Khaimish Khatun [r. 1248-1251] Prince Shiremun [d. 1251] Prince Khodan [d. 1246] Lady Fatima [d. 1246] House Tolui: *Tolui Otchigin [1191-1232] Sorkhakhtani Beki [1190-1252] Möngke Khaghan [r. 1251-1259] Prince Khubilai Prince Hulagu Prince Ariq Boke General Menggesar, Noyan Companion of Mongke House Jochi: *Jochi [c. 1182-1225] Batu, Khan of the Golden Horde [1205-1255] Major Sources Cited: - De Nicola, Bruno. “Regents and Empresses: Women’s Rule In the Mongols’ World Empire” in Women in Mongol Iran: The Khatuns, 1206-1335. - Hamadani, Rashid-al-Din. Compendium of Chronicles. Dowson, John (tr.) - Juvaini, Ata-Malik. History of the World Conqueror. (tr. John Andrew Boyle). - Kim, Hodong. “A Reappraisal of Güyüg Khan” in Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomand and the Sedentary World. - Man, John. Kublai Khan: The Mongol King Who Remade China. - McLynn, Frank. Genghis Khan: This Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy. - Onon, Urgunge (tr.). The Secret History of the Mongols: The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan. - Rockhill, William Woodville (tr.). The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, 1253-55, as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian de Carpine. - Rossabi, Morris. “The Reigns of Ogodei and Guyug” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. - Weatherford, Jack. Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World.  


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From The History of China at 2020-07-29 13:44:45

#197 - Yuan 14: Battle Royale (media.mp3)

As Guard-Captain of the Red Turbans, Zhu Yuanzhang sets his sights on the jewel of the southlands: Nanjing. Once that's in his grasp, he'll truly join the ranks of the top-tier warlords of the era... but when you've elbowed you way up to the head table, don't be surprised if those you bump up against take exception to you shoving them aside... Time Period Covered: 1355-1360 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Emperor Toghon Temur (Huizong/Shundi) [r. 1333-1368, 1368-1370] General Shimo Yisun [d. 1360] Red Turban: Emperor of Song, Han Lin'er, the Little Lord of Light [r. 1351-1367] Guo Zixing [d. 1355] Ming: Guard-Captain Zhu Yuanzhang, "Outstanding Hero" [1328-1398] General Xu Da [1332-1385] General Chang Yüchen General Hu Dahai [d. 1362] Minister Song Lian [1310-1381] Han: King Chen Youliang [1320-1363] Wu: Zhang Shicheng, the "Heaven Blessed" King, Salt-Smuggler Extraordinaire [1321-1367]  


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From The History of China at 2020-07-20 09:55:26

#196 - Special: ReConsidering China with Xander Snyder & Eric Fogg (media.mp3)

My long-lost conversation with the hosts of the excellent ReConsider Podcast, Xander and Eric... now *finally* delivered to you!  


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From The History of China at 2020-07-11 11:44:51

#195 - Yuan 13: The Lords of Light (media.mp3)

As the cataclysmic decade of the 1340s rolls in to the 1350s a planned rerouting of the Yellow River will trigger a massive uprising by what the Yuan authorities call the Red Turban Rebels. But who are they really? What do they believe? Why are they fighting? And how do they tie in with the eventual overthrow of the Mongols from their hegemony over China? Major Historical Figures: Maitreya Buddha, Successor to Gautama Buddha [???] Mani the Last, Prophet of Manichaeism [ca. 216-277 CE] Red Turbans: Peng Yingyu, Buddhist Monk, "Father" of the Red Turbans [d. ca. 1348-1358] Northern: Han Shantong, Lord of Light [d. 1351] Han Lin'er, the Young Lord of Light [1340-1367] General Liu Futong (AKA "Liu Fangshi") [1321-1363] Guo Zixing, Leader of Red Turban Army, Lord of Haozhou [d. 1355] Zhu Yuanzhang, Buddhist mendicant monk, Guard Commander of the Red Turbans [1328-1398] Southern: Xu Shouhui, cloth-merchant, Emperor of Tianwan Kingdom, Maitreya Incarnate [1320-1360] Qing Dynasty: Huang Yupian, Qing Dynasty Magistrate and White Lotus Hunter [mid-19th century] Major Sources Cited: Brook, Timothy. The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Buckley Ebrey, Patricia and Anne Walthall. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I. Chao, Wei-pang. “Secret Religious Societies in North China in the Ming Dynasty” in Folklore Studies, Vol. 7. Farmer, Edward L. Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society following the Era of Mongol Rule. Flower, Theresa. “Millenarian Themes of the White Lotus Society.” Hung, Hing Ming. From the Mongols to the Ming Dynasty: How a Begging Monk Became Emperor of China, Zhu Yuan Zhang. Lin, Wushu. “A Study On Equivalent Names of Manichaeism in Chinese” in Popular Religion and Shamanism. Lin, Wushu. Manichaeism and its Dissemination in the East. Ma, Xisha. “The Syncretism of Maitreyan Belief and Manichaeism in Chinese History” in Popular Religion and Shamanism. Mote, Frederick W. Imperial China: 900-1800. Mote, Frederick W. “The Rise of the Ming Dynasty, 1330-1367” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty. Overmeier, Daniel L. “Folk-Buddhist Religion: Creation and Eschatology in Medieval China” in History of Religions, Vol. 12, No. 1. Shek, Richard. “Religious Dissenters in Ming-Qing China” in Religion and the Early Modern State: Views from China, Russia, and the West. Tan, Chung. Across the Himalayan Gap: An Indian Quest for Understanding China. Ter Haar, B.J. The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History. Wang, Kristen. “Scandalous Tales Behind Nanjing’s 70 Ancient Names” in The Nanjinger, 07/04/2019. Waterson, James. Defending Heaven: China’s Mongol Wars, 1209-1370.  


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From The History of China at 2020-07-01 04:37:07

#194 - Intelligent Speech: Hidden Narratives from the Middle Kingdom (media.mp3)

My presentation to the 2020 Intelligent Speech Convention, on Women, Minorities, and reading between the bamboo scrolls of history to find the hidden stories. Also with a Q&A session after.  


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From The History of China at 2020-06-15 10:53:19

#193 - Yuan 12:Blue Sky, Red Turban, White Lotus, Black Death (media.mp3)

As Toghon Temur - the eleventh and final Great Khan of the Yuan, takes the throne - the dam holding back the near century of bad decisions back begins to buckle. Things are not helps by a dramatic climate shift, or the outbreak of one of the worst pandemics in human history, either... can we really blame the apocalyptic cults that spring up for thinking it's the end of the world? Time Period Covered: 1333~1344 CE Major Historical Figures: Toghon Temur Khaghan [r. 1333-1368, 1370] Grand Chancellor Bayan Ba'atur of the Merkid [1280-1340] Zhu Yuanzhang [1328-1398]  


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From The History of China at 2020-06-04 02:46:06

Rebroadcast: 6/4 - UK Cable on the Tiananmen Square Massacre (media.mp3)

31 years later, To forget is to risk it all happening anew...  


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From The History of China at 2020-05-20 04:39:40

#192 - Mongol 14.1: There & Back Again (media.mp3)

In the aftermath of the Golden Horde's devastating strike into Eastern Europe, Christendom reels. As apocalyptic as the assaults were, the great enemy's sudden and inexplicable evaporation offers no comfort, and only more questions. In order to get some answers, the Holy See will dispatch an unlikely candidate to make his way across the whole of Eurasia in an attempt to first find, and then meet with, the King of the Tartars - whoever, and wherever he may be... Time Period Covered: 1245-1247 CE Major Historical Figures: European Christendom: Pope Innocent IV [r. 1243-1254] Friar Giovanni da Pian del Carpine (John of Plano Carpini) [ca. 1185-1252] Friar Benedict of Poland [ca. 1200-ca. 1280] Friar Stephen of Bohemia Konrad I, High Duke of Krakow [ca. 1187-1247] Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galacia [1201-1264] Grand Prince Vasilko (Basil) Romanovich of Kiev [1203-1269] Grand Prince Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir [1191-1246] Mongol Empire: Guyük Khaghan [r. 1246-1248] Toregene Khatun [r. 1241-1246] Batu Khan of the Golden Horde [ca. 1205-1255] Grand Secretary Chinqai of Khwarazm  


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From The History of China at 2020-05-11 06:56:21

#191 - Special: "Superpower Interrupted," an Interview with Author Michael Schuman (media.mp3)

My interview with Beijing-based author and journalist Michael Schuman about China's history, present, future, and food... and of course about his upcoming book, "Superpower Interrupted: The Chinese History of the World," available on June 9th, 2020. Find Michael on Twitter under the handle @michaelschuman  


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From The History of China at 2020-04-26 08:54:57

#190 - Yuan 11: The War of the Two Capitals (media.mp3)

We start today in the aftermath of the murder of the 9th Great Mongol Khan and the 5th Emperor of Yuan. We end a decade later, at the beginning of the 15th Great Khan and 11th Yuan Emperor... coincidentally (or not) the last of both. The treachery, assassinations, wars, and power-plays that get us from that start to that end will threaten to split the very soul of the empire in two. Also, there's a lot of Temürs along the way... like, a *lot,* a lot! Time Period Covered: 1323-1333 CE Major Events: * Coup at Nanpo [Sept. 4, 1323] - Outcome: assassination of Shidebala Khaghan, accession of Yesün Temür Khaghan * War of the Two Capitals [Aug. 1328-Nov. 14, 1328 (sporadic resistance thru 1332)] - Outcome: Khaishan Restorationist victory/ Shangdu Loyalist defeat, overthrow of Aragibagh & enthronement of Jayaatu Khaghan * Incident at Ongghochatu [Aug. 26-30, 1329] - Outcome: assassination of Khoshila, restoration of Togh Temur Khaghan to the throne Relevant Historical Figures: Great Yuan: Shidebala (Gegeen Khaghan/Yuan Yingzong) [r. 1320-1323] Yesün Temür (Khaghan/Yuan Taiding) [r. 1323-1328] Aragibagh (Khaghan/Yuan Tianshun) [r. Oct.-Nov. 1328] Togh Temür (Jayaatu Khaghan/Yuan Wenzong) [r. Oct. 1328-Apr. 1329, Sept. 1329- Sept. 1332] Khoshila (Khutughtu Khaghan/Yuan Mingzong) [r. Feb. 1329-Aug. 1329] Rinchinbal (Khaghan/Yuan Ningzong) [r. Oct. 29, 1332-Dec. 14, 1332] Toghon Temür (Ukhaghatu Khaghan/Yuan Huizong) [r. 1333-1368] Empress Budashiri [1307-1340] Crown Prince Aradnadara [d. 1330] Prince El Tegüs [c. 1329-c. 1340] Daula-shah, Grand Councilor of the Right [d. 1228] El Temür, General & Grand Councillor of the Right [d. 1333] Bayan of the Merkids, General & Grand Councillor of the Left [d. 1340] Chagatai Khanate: Esen Bukha I, Khan [r. 1310-1318] Eljigidey Khan [r. 1326-1329] Golden Horde: Öz Beg Khan [r. 1313-1341] Ilkhanate: Abu Sa'id (Bahadur Khan) [r. 1316-1335]  


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From The History of China at 2020-04-08 13:47:20

#189 - Yuan 10: The Third Rail (media.mp3)

Temur Khan's death without an heir sparks a power vacuum within the Yuan court - two brothers will come to power together, but only one will be able to sit the throne at a time, who will succeed? Meanwhile, as money issues continue to plague the empire, the Mongol nobility get more and more fed-up with the Yuan Borjigins' continual shift toward Chinese-style reforms. Time Period Covered: 1307-1323 CE Major Historical Figures: Khaishan (Külüg Khaghan/Emperor Wuzong) [r. 1307-1311] Ayurbarwada (Buyantu Khaghan/Emperor Renzong) [r. 1311-1320] Shidebala (Gegeen Khaghan/Emperor Yingzong) [r.1320-1323] Grand Empress Dowager Targi [d. 1322] Empress Bulukhan [d. 1307] Khosila, Prince of Zhou Prince Ananda [d. 1307] Grand Councilor of the Right, Harghasun [d. 1307] Grand Councilor of the Right, Temüder [d. 1322] Grand Councilor of the Left/Right, Baiju [d.1323】  


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From The History of China at 2020-03-23 10:34:34

#188 - Mongol 13: O Lord, Why Are Thy Judgements So Deep? (media.mp3)

King Bela IV of Hungary has a bit of a barbarian problem. You see, he let in some Cumans, but now some different barbarians are demanding that he give them back. So Bela does the sensible thing: he kills the Mongol emissaries. Batu Khan and General Subotai are less than pleased... Time Period Covered: c. 1239-1242 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Empire: Batu Khan [c. 1205-1255] General Subotai Ba'atur ("the Valiant") [c. 1175-1248] General Khadan [d. 125?] General Shiban [d. 1266] Kingdom of Greater Hungary: King Bela III [r. 1172-1196] King Andrew II [r. 1205-1235] King Bela IV [r. 1235-1265] Duke Coloman of Slavonia [d. 1241] Archbishop Ugolin of Kaolocsa [d. 1241] Duke Palatine of Hungary [d. 1241] Bishop Benedict of Oradea [d. 1241] Templar Master Rembald de Voczon [d. 1241] Archdeacon Thomas of Spalato [1200-1268] Master Roger of Torre Maggiore, Archdeacon of Varad [1205-1266] Cuman Tribes: Chieftain Khotan [d. 1140] Austria: Duke Frederick of Austria "the Quarrelsome" [d. 1245] Holy Roman Empire: Emperor Frederick II [r. 1220-1250] Conrad IV, King of Italy, Germany, the Romans, and Jerusalem [r. 1228-1254] Roman Catholic Church: Pope Gregory IX [r. 1227-1241]  


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From The History of China at 2020-03-08 17:02:15

#187 - Yuan 9: Blessed Iron Khan (media.mp3)

Olziyet Temur - the Blessed Iron Khan - takes the throne as the Yuan Dynasty's second emperor, Changzong "The Preserver." He has taken it upon himself to uphold and protect his grandfather Khubilai's glorious legacy... but granddad sure left a bit of a mess for him to try to clear up. Time Period Covered: 1294-1307 CE Major Historical Figures: Olziyet Temur Khan (Emperor Changzong of Yuan) [r. 1294-1307 CE] Empress Bulukhan Crown Prince Deshou [d. 1306] Empress-Dowager Kököchin Gammala, Prince of Jin Öljei, Grand Councilor of the Right [d. 1303] Sayyid Boyan al-Dīn, Finance Minister Khaidu Khan of House Ögedei [d. 1301] Du'a Khan of House Chagatai  Öljeitu, Ilkhan of House Hülegü General Bayan of the Barin, "Hundred Eyes"  


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From The History of China at 2020-02-20 18:09:00

#186 - Yuan 8: Khan With the Wind (media.mp3)

Khubilai is ancient, pained, and sick... but he still has more Mongol justice to mete out before he joins the Eternal Sky. Still, some campaigns will go better than others. Period Covered: ca. 1287-1294 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai (Emperor Shizu) [r. 1260-1294] Crown Prince Olziit Temur (Emperor Chengzong) [r. 1294-1307] Prince Esen Temur Prince Temur Bukha General Shibi General Gao Xing Admiral Yike Musi Ambassador Meng Qi Phagspa Lama, Imperial Preceptor of Tibet [1235-1280] Imperial Preceptor Dharmapalarasita Kingdom of Pagan (Burma): King Narathihapate [r. 1256-1287] Kingdom of Singhasari (Java): King Kertanagara [d. 1292] Prince Raden Vijaya [r. 1293-1309] Duke Jayakatwang of Kediri [d. 1293] Mongol Khanates: Du'a Khan of the Chagatids Khaidu Khan of the Ögedeids [d. 1301] Prince Nayan [d. 1287]  


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From The History of China at 2020-02-14 13:45:18

#185 - Special: De Materia Medica (media.mp3)

Traditional Chinese Medicine - as its name duly implies - has been a part of China for at least 2,500 years. But what does it mean? Where does it come from? How does it work? And does it have a place it modern society?  


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From The History of China at 2020-02-06 18:21:55

#184 - Yuan 7: Mark It Zero (media.mp3)

Khubilai Khan has led a pretty blessed existence as of the year 1279. But fate has a way of balancing things out in starkly brutal fashion... Time Period Covered: ~1279-1287 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Emperor Khubilai Empress Chabi (d. 1281) Crown Prince Zhenjin (1242-1285) Prince Toghon, Prince of Suppression of the South Finance Minister Ahmad Fanakati (d. 1282) Finance Minister Lu Shijing (d. 1285) Admiral Hong Tau General Fan Wenhu General Xindu General Nasir al-Din Commander Sodu (d. 1285) Commander Arigh Khaya Japanese Shogunate: Hojo Tokimune, Regent of the Shogun Kingdom of Pagan: King Narathihapate Kingdom of Champa: King Jaya Indravarman VI Kingdom of Dai-Viet: Emperor Tran Than-Tong  


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From The History of China at 2020-01-21 12:26:31

#183 - Yuan 6: Cultural Hot-Pot for the Soul (media.mp3)

Khubilai Khan is a man astride multiple worlds - trying to be both the Khan of the Great Mongol Nation, and the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. This will take quite a bit of accommodation, and between Mongolian shamanism, Chinese Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, and Christianity... more than a little behaving like a cultural chameleon to square those civilizational circles.  


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From The History of China at 2020-01-03 15:04:48

#182 - Mongol 12.1: The Golden Horde (media.mp3)

Jochi was tasked with subduing the Cuman tribes of the western steppes. Jochi failed. Now, under the second Great Khan Ögedei, it will fall to his successor, Batu, Khan of the Golden Horde, to finish what his father could not. He won't be going alone, though. In addition to his invincible tumens, he'll bring with him a host of imperial princes, as well as the greatest commander to ever mount a steed - Subotai the Valiant, now returns to the Western expanses to finish what he began 15 years ago... Note: this is part 1 of an extended bonus episode! Find the full episode and all other Bonus Episodes by become a patron at patreon.com/thehistoryofchina Time Period Covered: ca. 1235-1240 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol Khanate: Ögedei Khaghan (1186-1241) Subotai Ba'atuur, The Last Orlok (ca. 1176-1248) General Uriyangkhadai (1201-1272) House Ogedeid: Guyuk (1206-1248) Khadan (?) Khaidu (c. 1230-1301) House Jochi (Golden Horde): Batu Khan (ca. 1205-1255) House Tolui: Möngke (1209-1259) Bujek (?) House Chagatai: Baidar(?) Buri (d. 1252) Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy: Bachman Khan (d. 1237) Khoten Khan (d. 1241) Russian Principalities: Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir (1188-1238) Prince Roman of Vladimir (d. 1238) Prince Michael of Chernigov (1179-1246) Dmitri, Voivode of Kiev (?) Kingdom of Hungary: King Béla IV (1206-1270)  


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From The History of China at 2019-12-21 06:47:16

#181 - Special: 6th Anniversary Q&A (media.mp3)

It's finally time to give holiday thanks and - of course - submit myself before the high inquisitors pelting me with questions day and night! Topics this year ranged far and wide: 1. How wide-ranging was Genghis Khan's last command in Western Xia? 2. How do I keep my loud mouth out of trouble with the PRC? 3. How "good" were the good times of dynasties for the normies? 4. Which Khan has got it goin' on? 5. Were there plagues in ancient China? How were they dealt with? 6. Did the Mongols trigger anti-foreign conservatism in the Ming? 7. Where should we divide "Chinese" history from "non-Chinese" history? 8. Just how incompetent was the Song Dynasty? 9. Why does THoC be like it do? 10. How did the Mongols relay orders over long distances before writing? 11. How much was opium to blame versus other factors in the decline and fall of the Qing Dynasty?  


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From The History of China at 2019-12-08 17:15:24

#180 - Yuan 5: Dismounting the Horse to Sit the Dragon (media.mp3)

While his armies have been keeping busy in every direction on both offense and defense, Emperor Khubilai had been hard at work re-organizing the mess his family made in China and reformatting it into a stable, lawful Yuan Dynasty. And Grandpa Genghis was right: it's was a *lot* more work to run an empire, than to conquer one... Period Covered: ca. 1261-1290  


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From The History of China at 2019-11-18 14:09:46

#179 - Yuan 4: Traditional Family Values (media.mp3)

Khubilai must face off against his most potent threat - his own traditionalist cousin, Khaidu. Meanwhile, Khaidu frets over his daughter Khutulun - a girl as desirable as she is formidable, and will brook no husband who cannot best her at wrestling. Time Period Covered: ca. 1265-1306 CE Notable Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai Khan Prince Zhenjin Prince Nomukhan Prince Kokochu Prime Minister of the Right Antong General Bayan Chagatai Khanate: Khaidu Khan Princess Khutulun Rebel Princes: Togh Timur Shiregi Yobukhur Melik Timur  


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From The History of China at 2019-11-05 13:17:29

#178 - Yuan 3: Divine Wind (media.mp3)

The armies of Great Yuan sweep across the east, destroying and conquering all who would stand against them. Goryeo Korea eventually sees the writing on the wall and cuts a deal with the Great Khan. Khubilai will then turn his sights out over the waters of the Pacific, to the Land of the Rising Sun... and send its monarch a friend request. Time Period Covered: ca. 1257-1275 CE Major Historical Figures: Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai, Great Khan of Mongolia, Emperor of Yuan Princess Hutulun Jielimishi Zhao Liangbi, Yuan Emissary to Japan Goryeo Korea: Choi Ui, Warlord of Korea [d. 1257] King Wonjong [r. 1260-1274] Im Yon, Warlord [d. ca. 1271] Pan Pu, Yuan Emissary to Japan Kamakura Japan: Hojo Tokimune, Regent of the Shogun (Shikken, de facto ruler of Japan) Shoni Sukeyoshi, Magistrate of Chikuzen City  


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From The History of China at 2019-10-20 17:47:28

#177 - Yuan 2: Brother Mine (media.mp3)

With the untimely death of Möngke Khaghan outside the walls of Chongqing, the Mongol Empire will be fore to choose for a new emperor for the 5th time in just three decades. Unlike the first four conclaves, however, this will result in not one, but two khuriltais, and two who would be Great Khan. Möngke’s brothers, Khubilai and Ariq Böke, will duel it out across Central Asia to determine who will rule all under the Eternal Blue Sky. Time Period Covered: 1259-1266 CE Major Historical Figures: Toluids: Möngke Khaghan [d.1259] Khubilai’s Supporters: Khubilai Khaghan [r. 1260-1289] Chabi Khatun [1225-1281] Hulegu Ilkhan [d. 1265] General Ked Bukha [d. 1260] King Hethum I of Armenia [r. 1226-1270] Ariq Böke Supporters: Ariq Böke Khaghan [r. 1260-1264, d. 1266] Berke Khan (Golden Horde/Jochid) [d. 1266] Alghu Khan (Chagatids) [d. 1265] Jumukhur (Ilkhanate) Urung Tang (Möngke Toluid) General Alandar [d. 1262] General Durchi Mamluk Sultanate: Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz [r. 1259-1260] Sultan Baibars [r. 1260-1277] Song Dynasty: Chancellor Jia Sidao [d. 1273]  


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From The History of China at 2019-10-12 15:49:56

#176 - Special: Strange Tales 4, "Zibuyu" (media.mp3)

Confucius talked about a *lot* ... but there were certain things about which even the Master dare not speak. Today we break that ancient taboo with 4 stories of spooky strangeness... 2:01 - "A Karmic Meal" 5:30 - "The Concubine's Revenge" 20:22 - "Too Poor to Be Haunted" 24:26 - "A Hell of a Trial" Adapted from: Zibuyu "What the Master Would Not Discuss" by Yuan Mei  


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From The History of China at 2019-10-09 09:39:32

#175 - Mongol 11.1: Ögedei Cometh (media.mp3)

Genghis Khan is dead, and his 3rd son Ögedei has ben selected to lead the Mongol Empire into an uncertain future. Once he is confirmed on the throne, he'll strike on in every direction against every foe at once. On the way, there will be virgin sacrifices, talking wolves, free money, mass enslavement, Persian princes, Assassins, poison, angry water spirits, battle-mages, cannibalism... and that's just the tip of the iceberg! Note: This is part 1 of the 2-part conclusion to the life of Genghis Khan, with the conclusion available to subscribers via: www.patreon.com/thehistoryofchina  Time Period Covered: 1227-1234 CE Major Historical Figures: Ogedeids: Ogedei Khaghan Subotai the Valiant General Chormakhan Minister Yelu Chu Cai Toluids: Tolui Khan Sorkhakhtani Beki Khatun Chagatids: Chagatai Khan Khwarazmia: Jalal al-Din Kingdom of Georgia: Queen Rusudan  


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From The History of China at 2019-09-30 12:50:09

Proclamation of the Central People's Government of the PRC, October 1, 1949 (media.mp3)

The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army, backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government.  Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened. Representing the will of the whole nation, [this session of the conference] has enacted the organic law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, elected Mao Zedong as chairman of the Central People's Government; and Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang as vice chairmen [of the Central People's Government]; and Chen Yi, He Long, Li Lisan, Lin Boqu, Ye Jianying, He Xiangning, Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang, Xu Xiangqian, Peng Zhen, Bo Yibo, Nie Rongzhen, Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Seypidin, Rao Shushi, Tan Kah-kee [Chen Jiageng], Luo Ronghuan, Deng Zihui, Ulanhu, Xu Deli, Cai Chang, Liu Geping, Ma Yinchu, Chen Yun, Kang Sheng, Lin Feng, Ma Xulun, Guo Moruo, Zhang Yunyi, Deng Xiaoping, Gao Chongmin, Shen Junru, Shen Yanbing, Chen Shutong, Szeto Mei-tong [Situ Meitang], Li Xijiu, Huang Yanpei, Cai Tingkai, Xi Zhongxun, Peng Zemin, Zhang Zhizhong, Fu Zuoyi, Li Zhuchen, Li Zhangda, Zhang Nanxian, Liu Yazi, Zhang Dongsun, and Long Yun as council members to form the Central People's Government Council, proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China and decided on Beijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China.  The Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China took office today in the capital and unanimously made the following decisions: to proclaim the establishment of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; to adopt the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the government; to elect Lin Boqu from among the council members as secretary general of the Central People's Government Council; to appoint Zhou Enlai as premier of the Government Adminstration Council of the Central People's Government and concurrently minister of Foreign Affairs, Mao Zedong as chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government, Zhu De as commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army, Shen Junru as president of the Supreme People's Court of the Central People's Government, and Luo Ronghuan as procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the Central People's Government, and to charge them with the task of the speedy formation of the various organs of the government to carry out the work of the government.  At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty. Mao Zedong Chairman  ...

From The History of China at 2019-09-22 01:34:30

#174 - Yuan 1: In Xanadu Did Kubla Khan... (media.mp3)

You know it’s hard out there for a prince. The fourth sons of a fourth son, Khubilai of the Borjigin will grow up little recognized, and bound for a life of little more than comfortable obscurity. But between his mother’s machinations, his wife’s guidance, his own skills… and a healthy smattering of good fortune, he’ll find himself suddenly thrust into the spotlight and tasked with overseeing the conquest of the Mongols’ oldest foe. Time Period Covered: 1215-1259 CE Major Historical Figures: Mongol: Tolui [c. 1191-1232] – 4th son of Genghis Khan, Khubilai’s father Sorkhokhtani Beki [c. 1190-1252] – Khubilai’s mother, Nestorian Christian Möngke Khaghan [1209-1259] – Tolui’s eldest son, 4th Great Khan of the Mongols Khubilai, Ilkhan of the Left [1215-1289] – favored grandson of Genghis Hulagu, Ilkhan of the Right [1218-1265] – 3rd son of Tolui and Sorkhokhtani Ariq Böke [1219-1266] – youngest son of Tolui, Otchigin “Hearthkeeper” Chabi Khatun [1225-1281] – Khubilai’s 2nd wife & only love, Tibetan Buddhist North China: Minister Yao Shu Liu Bingzhong, Buddhist Monk, Adviser & Architect of Kaiping/Shangdu city The Phagspa Lama [1235-1280] Dali Kingdom: King Duan Xingzhi [r. 1251-1254, 1256-1260 (as Maharaja)] Prime Minister Gao Taixiang [d. 1253] Major Sources: Atwood, Christopher P. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Broadbridge, Anne F. Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire. Clements, Jonathan. A Brief History of Khubilai Khan: Lord of Xanadu, Founder of the Yuan. May, Timothy (ed.). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 1. McLynn, Frank. Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy. Rossabi, Morris. “The Reign of Khubilai Khan” in The Cambridge History of China, v. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Weatherford, Jack. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens.  


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From The History of China at 2019-09-10 14:51:24

"Kubla Khan" - By: Samuel Taylor Coleridge (media.mp3)

Kubla Khan BY SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE Or, a vision in a dream. A Fragment. In Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure-dome decree: Where Alph, the sacred river, ran Through caverns measureless to man    Down to a sunless sea. So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round; And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery. But oh! that deep romantic chasm which slanted Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover! A savage place! as holy and enchanted As e’er beneath a waning moon was haunted By woman wailing for her demon-lover! And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething, As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing, A mighty fountain momently was forced: Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail, Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher’s flail: And mid these dancing rocks at once and ever It flung up momently the sacred river. Five miles meandering with a mazy motion Through wood and dale the sacred river ran, Then reached the caverns measureless to man, And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean; And ’mid this tumult Kubla heard from far Ancestral voices prophesying war!    The shadow of the dome of pleasure    Floated midway on the waves;    Where was heard the mingled measure    From the fountain and the caves. It was a miracle of rare device, A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!    A damsel with a dulcimer    In a vision once I saw:    It was an Abyssinian maid    And on her dulcimer she played,    Singing of Mount Abora.    Could I revive within me    Her symphony and song,    To such a deep delight ’twould win me, That with music loud and long, I would build that dome in air, That sunny dome! those caves of ice! And all who heard should see them there, And all should cry, Beware! Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise.  


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From The History of China at 2019-09-07 02:29:54

#173 - S. Song 15: Swan Song (media.mp3)

Hangzhou is surrounded by the Mongol Yuan army, and is soon to fall. When the child-emperor and the Empress Dowager are taken captive, it will fall to the last two princes of House Zhao to flee to the islands and archipelagos of the Deep South, if they’re to stand any chance at all of keeping the flame of the Song from guttering out forever. Time Period Covered: 1275-1279 CE Southern Song: Grand Empress Dowager Xie Empress Dowager Chuan Emperor Zhao Xian (Gong of Song) [r.1274-1276, d. 1323] Emperor Zhao Shi (Duanzong) [r. 1276-1278] Emperor Zhao Bing [r. 1278-1279] Chancellor Chen Yizhong Mongol Yuan Dynasty: Khubilai, Mongol Khan & Emperor of Yuan General Bayan, Commander of the Southern Campaign General Atzuhan Admiral Dong Wenping Lt. Menkhutai Lt. Fan Wenhu  


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From The History of China at 2019-08-24 12:34:55

#172 - S. Song 14: The Tightening Noose (media.mp3)

Mongolia is gripped in a civil war of its own, meaning the Song Empire has a chance to breathe. But with the immediate threat allayed for now, other problems become apparent. And when the new Great Khan, Khubilai, returns his attention to the land south of the Yangtze, China will find out whether it was a decade well spent in preparation for the coming assault, on one utterly squandered. Time Period Covered: 1259-1275 CE Major Historical Figures: Song Empire: Emperor Lizong (Zhao Yun) [r. 1221-1264] Emperor Duzong (Zhao Qi) [r. 1264 -1274] Grand Empress Dowager Xie [1210-1283] Chancellor Jia Sidao [1213-1275] Mongolia: Möngke [1209-1259] Khubilai [1215-1294] Ariq Böke [1219-1264] General Aju [1227-1287]  


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From The History of China at 2019-08-07 09:26:34

#171 - Mongol 10.1: The Succession (media.mp3)

Genghis Khan is old, wracked by pain in his body and heart, and in spite of his best efforts, has come to accept there is one foe he cannot defeat: mortality itself. Thus, even before setting out on his campaign against the Khwarazmian Empire, he will assemble his four sons and together reach a fateful decision - who among them will rule when Genghis is gone? Note: This is part 1 of the 2-part conclusion to the life of Genghis Khan, with the conclusion available to subscribers! Time Period Covered: 1220-1227 CE Major Historical Figures: Genghis Khan [Temüjin] (1162-1227) Börte Khatun (c.1161-c.1130) Jochi (1181-1226) Chagatai Khan (1183-1242) Ögedei Khan (c.1186-1241) Tolui (c.1191-1232)  


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From The History of China at 2019-07-29 12:47:26

#170 - S. Song 13: Stay of Execution (media.mp3)

The Mongol Khanate is on the warpath against all who would stand against it... until several unexpected system errors for the whole system to reboot. How will Song China deal with these unexpected years of preparatory time? Time Period Covered: 1241-1260 CE Major Historical Figures: Song Dynasty: Emperor Lizong Chancellor Jia Sidao Mongol Empire: Ögedei Khan Toregene Khatun Guyuk Khan Oghul Khaimish Khatun Sorkhokhtani Beki Möngke Khan Khubilai Ilkhan General Uriyangkhadai  


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From The History of China at 2019-07-14 11:14:35

#169 - S. Song 12: Instant Regret (media.mp3)

Just off of the heady victory over the Jin Dynasty with their new BFFs, the Mongols, a first-in-a-century visit to the Imperial Tombs gives the Song court a brilliant idea - what if we just took them back without asking? What's the worst that could happen? Time Period Covered: 1234-1241 CE Major Historical Figures: Song Dynasty: Emperor Lizong Chancellor Zheng Qingzhi Chancellor Shi Miyuan [d. 1233] General Zhao Kui General Quan Zicai Mongol Khanate: Ögedei Khaghan Töregene Khatun Prince Khödan Prince Khöchu Ambassador Wang Qi  


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From The History of China at 2019-07-04 14:44:24

Bonus 4.1 - Mongol 8.1: Subotai & Jebe's Excellent Adventure (media.mp3)

In the course of their pursuit of the fleeing Khwarazmian Amir, Genghis Khan's two top commanders have reached the shores of the Caspian Sea, and heard some of the strangest tales about what - and who - lay beyond. When the Great Khan gives his go-ahead to scout it out, they'll launch a three-year trek that will remake the world in their bloody image. Time Period Covered: 1220-1221 CE  


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From The History of China at 2019-06-29 14:00:55

#168 - S. Song 11: Twilight of the Golds (media.mp3)

The Jin Dynasty is surrounded on all sides. It cannot get out. Soon enough, the Mongol stranglehold around Kaifeng will signal the Empire of Black & Gold's death-knell. Time Period Covered: 1224-1234 CE  


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From The History of China at 2019-06-02 13:40:21

#167 - S. Song 10: ...Is My Enemy's Enemy, No More, No Less (media.mp3)

With enemies on all sides, and the Mongol sledgehammer poised to strike its crushing blow against them, the Jin Dynasty seeks an out by plunging southward, only to find that the Song defenses have become the anvil on which they rest. Exhausted, they’ll seek peace at any cost… but will it be enough to save the tatters of their empire? Time Period Covered: 1217-1225 CE Major Historical Figures: Song: Emperor Ningzong (Zhao Kuo) [r. 1194-1224] Emperor Lizong (Zhao Yun) [r. 1224-1264] Empress Yang [1162-1232] Chancellor Shi Miyuan [1164-1233] Crown Prince Zhao Xun [1194-1220] Prince Zhao Hong [1207-1225] General Zhao Fang An Bing, Commandant of Sichuan Jin: Emperor Xuanzong (Wudubu/Wanyan Xun) [r. 1213-1224] Emperor Aizong (Ningjiasu/ Wanyan Shouxu) [r.1224-1234] Mongol: Genghis Khan (Temüjin) [r. 1206-1227] General Mukhali [1170-1223]  


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From The History of China at 2019-06-02 10:28:26

6/4: UK Cable on Tiananmen Square Massacre (media.mp3)

Even after 30 years... When you're ordered to forget, to remember becomes an act of defiance.  


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From The History of China at 2019-05-19 15:30:37

#166 - S. Song 9: The Enemy of My Enemy... (media.mp3)

The Jin Empire is all at once ripped apart from 4 different directions all at once: Shandong rebels from the east, Khitan from the northeast, Mongols from the northwest, and Tanguts from the West. So they decide to go the only direction left… and invade Southern Song. Time Period Covered: 1208-1217 CE Relevant Historical Figures: Song: Emperor Ningzong Chancellor Shi Miyuan Minister Zhen Dexiu Jin: Prince Wei Emperor Xuanzong Commander Hesheli Zhizhong Councilor Zhuhele Guoleqi Mongol: Genghis Khan Red Jacket Rebels: Yang the Saddler Khitan: Yelu Liuge, puppet-Emperor of Liao Dazhen Kingdom: Heavenly King Puxian Wannu  


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From The History of China at 2019-05-04 12:21:08

#165 - S. Song 8: The Kaixi War (media.mp3)

Chancellor Han Tuozhou is down-but-not-yet-out following his ill-fated attempting to bring down the Neo-Confucians. Thus, in an attempt to salvage his career and reputation, he'll launch the Song Empire into full-scale war against the Jin Dynasty... with unexpected results. Time Period Covered: ca. 1200-1207 CE Major Historical Figures: Emperor Ningzong of Song Empress Yang Chancellor Han Tuozhou Minister Shi Miyuan General Wu Xi Commissioner Cheng Song  


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From The History of China at 2019-04-21 13:38:23

#164 - S. Song 7: Out With the New, In With the Old (media.mp3)

Neo-Confucianism has made a strong comeback through the synthesis of its various doctrines under the philosophical guidance of Zhu Xi of the Southern Song court. He and his likeminded ministers seek to bring back the perfection of eras gone by by being perfectly morally upright, and expecting everyone else to do the same. But when it turns out that certain other loose-living party-boys like Chancellor Han Tuozhou and Emperor Ningzong aren’t so thrilled about their buzzkilling ways, it will set up a massive conflict at court. Time Period Covered: 1194-1202 CE Major Historical Figures: Emperor Ningzong Chancellor Han Tuohzou Minister Zhu Xi  


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From The History of China at 2019-03-31 14:27:31

#163 - S. Song 6: Filial Impiety (media.mp3)

Back in Song China, we have a tale of two emperors: one who is devoted utterly to his father, and the other who's...well... not. Time Period Covered: 1165-1194 CE Major Historical Figures: Retired Emperor Gaozong [r. 1127-1162, as retired emperor 1162-1187] Emperor Xiaozong [r. 1162-1189, as retired emperor 1189-1194] Emperor Guangzong [r. 1189-1194] Empress Dowager Wu [1115-1197] Empress Li [1144-1200]  


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From The History of China at 2019-03-31 14:11:00

Announcement: Bonus Mongol Content! (media.mp3)

You know you want to... www.patreon.com/thehistoryofchina  


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From The History of China at 2019-03-16 15:09:59

#162 - Mongol 4: The Great Khan (media.mp3)

Temujin Khan crushes his enemies, sees them driven before him, and hears the lamentations of their women!!! Time Period Covered: ca. 1202-1206 CE Major Historical Figures: Borjigin/Mongol: Temujin (Genghis Khan) Khasar, Temujin's Brother Börte - Temujin's 1st Wife Yesugen - Temujin's 2nd Wife Yesui - Temujin's 3rd Wife Jochi, Temujin's first son(?) Jirkho’adai (Jebe the Arrow) Khubilai Jelme Subedei Jadaran: Jamukha (Gurkhan) - Temujin's anda/nemesis Kereyid: To'oril (Ong Khan) Senggum, Ong's son Cha'ur Beki, Ong's daughter Naiman: Tayang Khan Queen Gürbesu, Tayang's Wife/Stepmother Works Cited: Allsen, Thomas (1994). “The Rise of the Mongolian Empire and Mongolian Rule in North China” in The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States. Kahn, Paul (tr.) (2005). The Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chingis Khan. Onon, Urgunge (2001). The Secret History of the Mongols: The Life and Times of Chingghis Khan. Ostrowski, Donald (2002). Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-Cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304-1589. Pelliot, Paul (1959). Notes on Marco Polo, Vol. 1. Weatherford, Jack (2005). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Weatherford, Jack (2017). Genghis Khan and the Quest for God. Weatherford, Jack (2011). The Secret History of the Mongol Queens.  


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From The History of China at 2019-03-09 12:23:54

#161 - Mongol 3: The Anda, The Arrow, & The Airag (media.mp3)

Temujin will enlist the aid of his recently-sworn father, To'oril AKA Ong Khan of the Kereyid to rescue his stolen wife, Börte. But his successful rescue of his beloved will only mark the beginning of his remarkable journey from isolated herder, to powerful khan of the steppes. Unfortunately, one of the sacrifices he'll be forced to make along the path to power will be that most-sacred: his sworn brotherhood with Jamukha, who will transform from Anda to Nemesis for Temujin. Time Period Covered: ca. 1178-1201 CE Major Historical Figures: Borjigin: Temujin, Khan of the Borjigin Börte, wife of Temujin Ho'elun, mother of Temujin Khasar, Brother of Temujin Belgutei, Half-Brother of Temujin Jelme, Companion of Temujin Bo'orchu, Companion of Temujin Jochi, Temujin's first-born son(?) Kereyid: To'oril, Khan of the Kereyid (Ong Khan) Jadaran: Jamukha (Gurkhan)  


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From The History of China at 2019-02-25 16:48:00

#160 - Mongol 2: The Black Sable (media.mp3)

In spite of difficulties, Ho'elun and her family endeavor to persevere. Temüjin discovers the power of friendship, and the clarity of purpose that comes with true love <3.  


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From The History of China at 2019-02-17 13:39:15

#159 - Mongol 1: The Blood Clot (media.mp3)

High in the wildlands of the Khentii Mountains, a tribe of hunters and scavengers comes into possession of a young and captured bride. Ripped out of her old life, she and the family her new husband create at the edge of the world will have to find a way to survive. Time Period Covered: ca. 1158~1170 CE  


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From The History of China at 2019-02-14 15:22:52

#158 - S. Song 5: A Changing of the Guard (media.mp3)

Both Song and Jin have a new set of emperors at the helm... it will mean war... and peace... but the riptides of history will ensure that, whatever the outcome of this conflict, very little will remain the same for much longer. Time Period Covered: ~1140-1162 CE  


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From The History of China at 2019-01-23 14:40:26

#157 - S. Song 4: Peace at What Cost? (media.mp3)

Emperor Gaozong really, *really* wants his dad's coffin. Qin Hui really, *really* wants to give the Jurchen whatever they ask for. The Jurchen really, *really* want the Mongol khan to stop tweaking their emperor's beard. Time Period Covered: 1135-1160 CE Major Works Cited: Allsen, Thomas. “Chapter 4: The rise of the Mongolian empire and Mongolian rule in north China” in Vol. 6, Alien Regimes and Border States. Franke, Herbert. “Chapter 3: The Chin Dynasty” in Vol. 6, Alien Regimes and Border States. Tao, Jing-Shen. “The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-Tsung” in Vol. 5, the Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors.  


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From The History of China at 2018-12-21 07:54:04

#156 - S. Song 3: Yue Fei, Pt. 2 - The Long-Legged Treachery (media.mp3)

General Yue Fei will reach career highs as he strikes back against Jurchen aggression with remarkable success. He'll drive his enemies so fast and hard, that he'll drive the Jin Dynasty close to its breaking point. But on the precipice of victory, ministerial machinations back in Hangzhou will spell the undoing of him and his life's work...  


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